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Women in trade and industry in Yorklocked

(act. c. 1300–c. 1500)
  • P. J. P. Goldberg


Women in trade and industry in York (act.c. 1300–c. 1500), were enfranchised in some numbers as citizens in their own right, but there is no evidence that they were allowed any political voice. Equally, although the freedom of York was by the later middle ages a prerequisite for persons to set up shop and employ labour, it did not constitute a significant means of access to careers in commerce for women. Some women were enfranchised by right of patrimony—perhaps a reflection of their social status—others as petty retailers such as hucksters, chapwomen, and upholders. A handful occupied more significant niches, for example ...

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Borthwick Institute of Historical Research, University of York
Surtees Society
National Archives of the United Kingdom, Public Record Office, London