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sport. Said to have been ' in the front rank of professional scullers ' ( Salford Chronicle , 14 June 1890 ), he defeated several nationally prominent opponents, including David Coombes and Edward May. In November 1872 he was beaten over mile -long courses on the Thames and Tyne by the Tyneside oarsman Robert Bagnall in races for £100. Addy began his working life as a mechanic at the Stage Buildings yard , and married on 29 November 1860 Jane (1842–1883) , a cloth-cap maker, daughter of Thomas Loveock , joiner. They had four children, Mary Jane

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Richard Airey , Baron Airey ( 1803–1881 ) by Lock & Whitfield , pubd 1878 © National Portrait Gallery , London Airey, Richard, Baron Airey ( 1803–1881 ), army officer , was born at Newcastle upon Tyne in April 1803, the eldest son from the six boys and three girls of Lieutenant-General Sir George Airey (1761–1833) and his wife, Catherine Talbot ( d. 1852) , third daughter of Richard Talbot of Malahide Castle, co. Dublin , and Margaret, suo jure Baroness Talbot of Malahide. He attended the junior department of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst

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of the River Tyne. During his first spell as a town councillor he published a pamphlet of observations on the improvement of navigation. This was a topical and contentious subject, for the unreformed corporation had long and justifiably been charged with wilful neglect of the river. Many hoped that the reformed council would attend to the manifest problems of the river, upon which the very prosperity of Tyneside depended; and when the council established a River Tyne committee, some hopes of improvement were raised. Armstrong was chairman of the River Committee

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built his first roof, for the smithy at Dubs locomotive works in Glasgow. Other business quickly followed until his company became one of the most important builders of engineering workshops in the country. Contracts included the Parsons marine steam turbine works at Wallsend-on-Tyne (1895–7), massive engine and boiler shops for William Beardmore's Dalmuir naval construction works (1902–5) and the gigantic Coventry Ordnance in Glasgow (1910). By the First World War, there was hardly a shipyard or engineering works in Scotland , the north of England ,

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Nyquist Arup ( 1895–1988 ) by Godfrey Argent , 1969 © National Portrait Gallery , London Arup, Sir Ove Nyquist ( 1895–1988 ), civil engineer , was born on 16 April 1895 in Newcastle upon Tyne , the elder son and second of the three children of (Jens Simon) Johannes Arup and his wife, Mathilde Bolette Nyquist. Johannes Arup was Danish veterinary consul in Newcastle upon Tyne at the time of his son's birth but was shortly afterwards transferred to Hamburg, Germany , as Danish consul there. Ove Arup's early schooling was in Hamburg , but he received his secondary

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actress and theatre manager , was born on 28 September 1872 aboard a training ship moored in the Tyne , the Wellesley , the daughter of Captain Charles Ashwell Botelar Pocock and his wife, Sarah Margaret Stevens. She was the third daughter in a large and religious family; one of her brothers, Roger Pocock , later became a traveller and founder of the Legion of Frontiersmen. When she was eight the family moved to Canada at Brockwell on the St Lawrence River. Here her father became a minister and Lena Ashwell was educated at Bishop Strachan's School

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the bank, and he presided over a process of expansion which was to consolidate its position in the commercial infrastructure of co. Durham. In 1805 a branch was opened at Durham and in the following year at Sunderland. In the mid-1820s the network was extended to Newcastle upon Tyne , South Shields , and Stockton-on-Tees. In conformity with the evolution of the banking system in the country as a whole at this time, the north-east of England was afflicted periodically by phases of instability in response to the overextension of credit. Local banking crises

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of Bateman's first tasks involved the enlargement of a canal reservoir and this work, coupled with an investigation into the flooding of the River Medlock , laid the foundation of a career that was to span over fifty years and whose output forms the basis of the modern UK water supply industry. In 1835 he became involved with William Fairbairn in designing and constructing reservoirs for the millowners on the River Bann in Ireland. On 1 September 1841 he married Fairbairn's only daughter, Anne ( d. 1894); they had three sons and four daughters. After

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Ernest Clarke

revised by Anne Pimlott Baker

became tenant of his father's farm at Aydon White House , and in 1794 he bought his first shorthorn cattle. Disappointed in the expectation of inheriting £300,000 from his godfather in 1795, in 1796 Bates became tenant of his father's small estate of Wark Eals , on the North Tyne River. He became friendly with George Culley (1735–1813) and Matthew Culley , through a family marriage, and was introduced to a large circle of agricultural acquaintances from the Tees region, including Charles Colling (1751–1836) and Robert Colling (1749–1820). In 1800 Bates

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R. K. Douglas

revised by Janette Ryan

chaplain to the marine artillery (1863–7), and then to the Pembroke (1867–72) and Devonport (1873–7) dockyards. He was chaplain of St George's, Portsea (1872–3), and in 1877 he was appointed rector of Falstone in Northumberland. In 1880 he became rector of Wark-on-Tyne , and in 1888 rector of Greens Norton in Northamptonshire. He continued with his Chinese studies and in 1877 he was appointed professor of Chinese at University College, London , and in 1885 the degree of DCL ( Durham ) was conferred on him in recognition of the value of his researches

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John Ashton

revised by Heather Shore

apothecary from Newcastle upon Tyne , whom he later married. Carew soon returned to the nomadic life, and when Clause Patch , a Gypsy king or chief, died Carew was elected his successor. He was convicted of being an idle vagrant, and sentenced to be transported to Maryland. On his arrival he attempted to escape, but was captured and made to wear a heavy iron collar; he escaped again, and encountered some Native Americans, who removed his shackles. On departure he travelled to Pennsylvania. He was then said to have swum the Delaware River , after which he adopted

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sold to the Northumberland landowner and collector Major George Anderson. Anderson's two important Canalettos inspired Carmichael's spectacular response, Ascension Day on the Tyne (priv. coll.) of 1829, also bought by the collector. This ambitious work, dramatic in scale, detail, and theatricality, directly compared Newcastle's celebration of its control of the River Tyne with Venice's relationship with the sea. Two series of topographical views, published as engravings in 1828–30 and 1832, further enhanced his reputation. He found a ready market for

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commission, to report on a proposed canal from the Tyne to the Solway , led nowhere, but Chapman then took on a number of major land drainage and flood protection schemes in west Yorkshire , as well as various harbour works. He acted in partnership with John Rennie (1761–1821) on the construction of the Humber Dock at Hull , started in 1803. After the spate of canal building, there were fewer new civil engineering projects available, though Chapman continued with drainage schemes, working as far south as the River Orwell in Suffolk , where he cut several new

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the wake of more than sixty years of repeated invasion and worsening political instability. In the 910s Constantine went on the offensive and backed the Bernicians against Rognvald , Danish king of York , culminating in a titanic but indecisive battle in 918 (probably) on the River Tyne in Lothian. The rise of the kings of Wessex changed the balance of power in Britain , however. In 920 along with other northern kings Constantine made a peace with Edward of Wessex , but he allied himself with the kings of Norse Dublin , marrying his daughter to King

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, who was baptized in Penrith on 3 March 1679, the third of seven children of William Cookson ( c.1635–1712) , a brazier, and his wife, Alice. William was occasionally cautioned for religious dissent and non-attendance at church. By 1704 Isaac had moved to Newcastle upon Tyne , where he became a merchant adventurer; however, nothing is known of the details of his early business interests. He married Hannah Buston (1681/2–1760) on 6 April 1709, but no details of her family, or of when their five children were born, are extant. The Cookson family worshipped

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W. F. Rae

revised by Eugenio F. Biagini

Stella Hall, Blaydon-on-Tyne, co. Durham , on 9 July 1829. He was eldest of the four sons and one daughter of Sir Joseph Cowen ( 1800–1873 ) and his wife, Mary ( d. 1851) , daughter of Anthony Newton of Winlaton , near Gateshead. Joseph Cowen senior was a coal owner and firebrick and clay retort manufacturer. He was a co. Durham JP and an alderman for Newcastle upon Tyne. A life member and chairman of the River Tyne improvement commission, he was knighted on 14 March 1872 for his services on the commission, which rendered the river navigable for sea-going

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wedding took place on 5 November 1807 at St Nicholas's Church, Deptford, Kent (beside the River Thames ). There were three sons and a daughter. The eldest, John , was born in Deptford in September 1810 and later worked as a waterman on both the Tyne and the Wear. The other sons ( George and William ) went to sea and are thought to have settled in Australia. After the wars Crawford returned to Sunderland and resumed his work in the coal trade on the river. On 10 November 1831 he became the first male victim of the outbreak of cholera imported in a

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Telford's successor from 1834 on the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal , though not all these ventures were successful commercially. He was responsible for improving the navigation of the Severn , and the Weaver navigation in the 1840s. He made important reports on the Thames , Tyne , Tees , Ouse , Nene , Witham , and Welland , and was also concerned with the commission for the improvement of the Shannon. He advised on the development of docks, particularly the Bute docks at Cardiff , the Middlesbrough docks and coal drops on the Tees , and the Black

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Tweed and the Forth. In one such account, Cuthbert as a boy is guarding sheep near the River Leader , which flows into the Tweed near Melrose; it was of course at Melrose itself that he became a monk. In another account of his boyhood, Cuthbert prays for some monks who are in danger of being shipwrecked on the River Tyne , and, although it has often been assumed that the principal river of this name is meant, it is possible that the river in question was the Tyne which flows into the North Sea at Tyninghame , a little way north of Dunbar. Finally

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trial of an excavating machine on the Grand Junction Canal near Hayes in 1794. The same year he carried out a survey of the River Wear , and a succession of reports followed relating to canals and harbours in the north-east. His short historical Account of the Principal Canals in the Known World (1795) was largely plagiarized from J. Phillips's General History of Inland Navigation (1792). He then promoted tunnels beneath the Tyne and the Thames from Gravesend to Tilbury. Work began on the latter in 1799 but was abandoned in 1802. In 1798 he proposed