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J. M. W. Turner's View from Barnes Terrace ( National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC ) was listed at £252 , and was the first of many Turners to pass through Agnews; works by William Etty , T. S. Cooper , Sir Edwin Landseer , J. B. Pyne , and William Westall also feature. Agnews catered primarily for the newly wealthy self-made northern and midland industrialists such as Joseph Gillott , T. Horrocks Miller , Sir William Armstrong , George Holt , and John Graham of Glasgow. A London branch was opened at 5 Waterloo Place in 1860. Stock held

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Cambridge , in 1979. A retrospective was held at the Serpentine Gallery in 1981. Further retrospectives were held at Harewood House in 1994, at Glasgow Gallery of Modern Art in 1996, and at the Royal Academy in 2003. Nude against a Blue Background , sold to the Arts Council in 1965, was the first of many sales to public collections including the Tate Gallery and the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art. Aitchison's distinctive style was formed early. In landscapes painted in Scotland in the 1950s, for instance, the colour was less intense than it

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Hamilton Academy where the art teacher, Penelope Beaton (1886–1963) , noticed her; Beaton persuaded Armour's father to allow her to enrol at Glasgow School of Art in 1920. Armour often said in later life that although there were many students at the school from more privileged backgrounds than her own, none had a better basic training in drawing and painting than she had received at Hamilton Academy. In 1925, after a post-diploma year and teacher training, Mary Steel became an art teacher, working in schools in Glasgow and Cambuslang. In 1927 she

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career until after his retirement, despite initially being given studio space at South Kensington. The period of his directorship was marked by a continuous expansion of the DSA's system of art education and museum provision in the regions but, paradoxically, also by the increasing independence of many of the larger schools in major cities such as Birmingham , Glasgow , and his home town of Manchester. Nevertheless, Armstrong was noted for the personal interest which he took in the pupils' work throughout the country, and for his concern to make himself

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charitable relief was paralleled by his encouragement of leisure and amusement facilities. He established the Cork Park races in 1861 and offered prizes for a yacht race between Dublin and Cork. Arnott prizes worth £160 a year were awarded at the Crawford Municipal School of Science, Art and Music in Cork. In 1896 he was created a baronet, and in the same year bought the duke of Devonshire's estate in Bandon for £250,000. He presented Bandon with a people's park and established a convalescent hospital in Youghal. Arnott was twice married, first

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Clara at birth, she later used the form Clare , and was also known as Tony. She attended Westminster School of Art , where she was taught by L. C. Nightingale , and the Slade School of Fine Art, London , where her teachers included Professor Frederick Brown and Henry Tonks. Atwood lived in Kew from 1893, moving to London in 1895; her studio on Bankside overlooked the Thames towards St Paul's. From 1893 she began to exhibit at the New English Art Club , becoming a member in 1912; of 225 exhibited works, 108 were shown there. In 1919 Atwood was

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A Ruling Passion (exh. RA , 1885; Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum ), when Barlow acted as a model for the figure of the celebrated ornithologist John Gould (1804–1881); and once in a straightforward portrait, which shows Barlow bearded and bespectacled (exh. RA , 1886; Oldham Art Gallery and Museum ). Barlow also devoted energy to the reproduction of J. M. W. Turner's paintings. In 1856 Barlow engraved The Wreck of the Minotaur and The Vintage at Macon , both of which the earl of Yarborough had lent to the Art Treasures Exhibition. The proceeds from

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(Jessie) Morrison. Barnes's younger brother, (Harry) Jefferson Barnes ( d. 1979) was knighted on retirement from the Glasgow School of Art. John Barnes , after education at Repton School , went to Trinity Hall, Cambridge , in 1930; he was awarded a scholarship in 1932, and took first classes in both parts of the natural sciences tripos (1932 and 1933), specializing in pathology in part two. In 1933 he entered Sheffield medical school , gaining conjoint and Cambridge qualifications in 1936—MB, BChir, MRCS, LRCP. After a residency in Sheffield , Barnes

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was educated at Leeds Art School , and had a keen interest in literature as well as painting, publishing a novel in 1928. Barrow's early years were unsettled: the family moved from Leeds to Worsley (outside Manchester ), then to rural Barton (near Cambridge ) and Saffron Waldon in Essex before settling at Bishop's Stortford in 1931, where Barrow first went to school. In 1932 they took a house in Sway, Hampshire , where he attended the Church of England elementary school , and then (in 1933) Brockenhurst county secondary school. In April 1935 the

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Bate, Philip Argall Turner ( 1909–1999 ), musicologist and collector of musical instruments , was born in Glasgow on 26 March 1909, the only child of English parents, Percy Herbert Bate (1868–1913) , secretary to the Glasgow Museum of Arts , and Mary Turner (1872–1963). His father became curator of the Municipal Art Gallery and Museum in Aberdeen , and died when Philip was four. He had not liked hearing music in the house, although he allowed Philip to sing nursery rhymes accompanied by his mother at the piano. The mother, a keen musician, was a pianist

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daughter of John Walton , photographer. They had a daughter, brought up after his wife’s death by his elder brother. In 1879, and by then a widower, Bates settled in London , where he briefly studied at the South London Technical Art School at Lambeth under Jules Dalou before transferring to the Royal Academy Schools in 1881. His student career culminated in 1883 with a gold medal travelling scholarship for his relief Socrates Teaching the People in the Agora (1886; marble version, University of Manchester ). Edmund Gosse claimed that the work created

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Downie. She grew up in Huntly, Aberdeenshire , and was educated at the Gordon Schools there, before enrolling at Gray’s School of Art in Aberdeen to study drawing and painting. During the Second World War she worked for the Ministry of Food at Torry Research Station , where she helped to develop new methods of fish processing. After the war she returned to Gray’s School of Art , graduating in 1948. She became an art teacher, and was appointed head of art at Milne’s High School in Fochabers, Moray. On 26 September 1952 Ena Robertson married ( William

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Bell maintained an interest in his work, giving lectures and writing articles. In 1911 he took up teaching again at Glasgow School of Art where he was appointed chief of the design section. In 1918 he was appointed professor of design at the Royal College of Art , a post he held until 1924. In the year following his death at 28 Holland Park Road, London , on 27 November 1933 a memorial exhibition of Bell's work was held at the Fine Art Society. Bell epitomized the arts and crafts ideal, in which movement he was a central figure. He was master of many skills

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Houghton [Sammy] Davis ( 1887–1981 ), journalist and racing driver , was born at 68 Philbeach Gardens, Brompton, London , on 7 January 1887, the son of Edwin Charles Davis , tea merchant, and his wife, Georgina Maud Fielding, née Houghton. After Westminster School he attended the Slade School of Art , and then served an apprenticeship at the Daimler Motor Works (1903–7). He became a journalist and illustrator on motoring journals, starting the periodical Automobile Engineer with A. Ludlow Clayden. During the First World War he was commissioned in the

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1925, at the age of sixteen, she gained admission to Glasgow School of Art (GSA) , and was awarded a diploma in textile design in 1929. From 1929 to 1931 she did postgraduate work in sculpture, winning a travel scholarship to London in 1930. She divided her energies in Glasgow over the next fifteen years between sculpting, film-making, and theatre design, and from 1934 a growing communist activism. Helen Biggar's artistic activities were based in a variety of studios where she produced sculptures for Glasgow patrons. On return visits to GSA , she worked with

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Kensington and a year at the Byam Shaw School of Art , she studied theatre design for three years under the émigré designer Ralph Koltai at the Central School of Art and Design. Bjørnson first made her reputation as a theatre designer at the Citizens' Theatre in Glasgow , where she came under the influence of Philip Prowse , its head of design, who was interested less in theatrical content than in strong visual effects, and where she worked with Sue Blane , who had been in the year below her at the Central School of Art and became a close friend. In 1972

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Richard Garnett

revised by S. R. J. Baudry

Black, William ( 1841–1898 ), journalist and novelist , was born at Glasgow on 9 November 1841, the son of James Black ( d. 1855) , a merchant. After receiving his education at various private schools, he studied landscape painting for a short time in the Glasgow School of Art , but, becoming connected with the Glasgow Citizen , gradually exchanged art for journalism. His contributions to the Citizen included sketches of the most eminent literary men of the day. In 1864 Black published his first novel, James Merle: an Autobiography , which was a total

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1941 to 1945. After the war Bliss returned to teaching at Hornsey College of Art and also taught at Harrow School of Art in 1945–6. He held a joint exhibition with Phyllis Dodd in Derby City Art Gallery in 1946. His appointment as director of the Glasgow School of Art took him back to Scotland until his retirement in 1964. His work and opinions were increasingly recognized. He exhibited watercolours at the Lefevre Gallery in 1948, wrote for The Scotsman and the Glasgow Herald newspapers, and in 1952 Memoirs of Prince Alexy Haimatoff by T. J. Hogg

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whose sister he later married. From 1891 to 1894 he served an apprenticeship in a small Glasgow architect's office; at the same time he attended Archibald Kay's evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art , later moving on to those of Francis Newbery. Bone gave up the idea of a career in architecture, however, and in 1897 took a small studio, joined the Glasgow Art Club , began to experiment with lithography, and first visited London. Two of his drawings of Glasgow were published by John Lane in the final volume of the Yellow Book (1897), following an

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designer and decorative artist , was born at 129 Inverness Terrace, Paddington, London , on 30 June 1889, the daughter of Jacob Levine Busse , stockbroker, and his wife, Annie Leonie Stiebel. After attending Miss Manville's school and King's College, London , she studied art at Regent School Polytechnic and at the Byam Shaw School of Art , and won a national gold medal for decorative design. On 12 September 1914, in Paddington , she married the architect Darcy Braddell (1884–1970) , with whom she had a son and a daughter. For much of her early career she worked