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Northumbria , and uterine sister of kings Oswald and Oswiu. According to late and unverifiable traditions preserved mainly in a life ascribed to the twelfth-century hagiographer Reginald of Durham , after a period of exile in Scotland she received the veil from Bishop Finan of Lindisfarne ( d. 661). Bede relates in his Historia ecclesiastica that she was abbess of the double monastery of ‘Urbs Coludi’ (identified as Coldingham in Berwickshire ) by c.672, when Æthelthryth , her nephew King Ecgfrith's queen, took the veil there at the hands of the N

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given them ' the milk of easier doctrines ' before going on to more perfect and sublime teachings. Áedán ( Bede gives his name in the Anglicized form Aidan ) thus proved his own discretion, ' the mother of virtues ' ( Bede , Hist. eccl. , 3.5 ). Oswald gave him the island of Lindisfarne for his monastic centre; it was not then an episcopal seat, for there Áedán , albeit a bishop, lived in the Ionan custom, in obedience to the abbot (not named in Áedán's time). He did not partake of the fast living at Oswald's court; he rarely dined there, and if he did, he

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from Hild a hostility to Wilfrid , the bishop of the Northumbrians expelled in 678, and maintained friendly relations with his intruded successors, who included the Whitby -trained Bosa at York. She also continued her friendship with Cuthbert after he became bishop of Lindisfarne in 685, and in 687 probably had a hand in promoting Hild's pupil John of Beverley to the bishopric based at Wilfrid's great foundation of Hexham. In 686, therefore, when Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury sought to make peace between Wilfrid and the Northumbrian king

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long account of how, later in that year, Æthelwine led the Durham religious community into temporary exile on Lindisfarne (Holy Island, Northumberland) , carrying with them the undecayed body of Cuthbert , their patron saint, in order to escape the immediate consequences of King William's so-called harrying of the north. This narrative includes a miracle story of how, when the party arrived at the point of the Northumbrian coast facing Lindisfarne , the tide threatened to prevent its crossing the causeway to the island, but ' the sea suddenly drew back from just

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caused him to embrace Roman orthodoxy and to despise the different observance of the Irish and Britons as practically schismatic. By the 660s the divisions of ecclesiastical custom in the Northumbrian church had become an acute problem. Alchfrith had presented to monks trained at Lindisfarne an estate of 40 hides for a monastic foundation at Ripon; but soon afterwards they renounced the site rather than change their Irish customs, as Alchfrith desired, and the foundation was given to Wilfrid. At that time, and perhaps not uninvolved in the transactions, Bishop

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years. Alcuin was back in Francia when vikings sacked Lindisfarne on 8 June 793. The event, which is not recorded in any Frankish annalistic or other text, provoked him to a series of letters over the period of at least a year, in which he criticized the Northumbrian king and people, as well as bishops and other clerics in both southern and northern England , for the faithlessness and gross misconduct which had brought down the wrath of God; it also inspired a major verse lament addressed to the Lindisfarne community, in which the note of pessimism is particularly

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700–718) , sister of the powerful king Ine , as well as in the introduction of a silver currency in Northumbria. The cultural strength in the creative blend of Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, and Mediterranean art which flourished in his reign produced outstanding manuscripts, such as the Lindisfarne gospels, and the architectural sculpture at Wearmouth – Jarrow and Hexham. His early life in exile, which Bede said was for study, had provided Aldfrith with firsthand knowledge of the Celtic kingdoms in the west, and he retained friendships there. In Ireland he had a

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so it is hard to imagine what could have had that effect if not relatively numerous settlers. Many stories of the desecration of churches are late and unreliable; Christianity survived and soon enough spread to the invaders. But the succession to all bishoprics bar York and Lindisfarne was disrupted, and nearly every church lost all its muniments. Whether or not Scandinavians took their paganism seriously, and the family of Ivarr seems to have done, their arrival clearly did not make for a thriving church. If, therefore, Alfred was not fighting for the existence

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Many antiquaries were indeed collectors, involved in determining the provenance of objects from medieval texts to Roman pavements. Both acquisition and cataloguing required serious financial commitment. Robert Cotton is the prime example. His manuscript collection included the Lindisfarne gospels, two contemporary copies of the Magna Carta , the only surviving copy of the poem Beowulf , many medieval cartularies and chronicles, and numerous Anglo-Saxon texts. Before the disastrous fire in Ashburnham House in 1731, in which a number of manuscripts were utterly

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T. F. Tout

revised by Marios Costambeys

Archbishop Eanbald (I) of York and Bishop Æthelberht of Hexham , the last Anglian bishop of that see. He assisted at the coronation of the Northumbrian king Eardwulf in 795. The date of his death is not known. His see may have come under the nominal charge of the bishop of Lindisfarne , Heathored , but there is no evidence for an Anglian presence at Whithorn thereafter.

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Latina , 94.789b ). In short it was a popularized version for people who knew Latin, but not exceedingly well: ordinary monks, it may be. His treatment of Cuthbert ( d. 687) was different. A prose life, written at Lindisfarne , was already in existence. Bede rewrote and reordered the text, augmented it by collecting information from Lindisfarne , and emphasized the spiritual and moral lessons to be drawn, completing it in 721. Although his work lacks some of the simple charm of the anonymous life, it is a more sophisticated production for an audience which required

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No biography, excepting a very slim volume by an evangelical contemporary, exists of this, in a real sense, unworldly man. It is difficult to think of a more incongruous associate for Disraeli; but he served his party and the state conscientiously and intelligently. He died at Lindisfarne , his Bournemouth home, of congestion of the lungs on 2 April 1885, and was buried on 8 April in the town's cemetery. His eldest surviving son, Arthur Cairns, Viscount Garmoyle ( d. 1890) , succeeded to the earldom.

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Candidus [Hwita, Wizo] ( fl. 793–802 ), theologian , born probably before c.770 in England , was one of Alcuin's closest pupils and, arguably, a leading philosophical and theological thinker in the years around 800. He went to the continent probably in 793 and returned to Lindisfarne a year later, but from c.794–5 he seems to have remained on the continent, spending about a year with Arno , bishop of Salzburg , in 798, and travelling to Rome with Arno in 799, and again to Rome in 800–01. Alcuin , who nicknamed him Candidus —presumably on the basis

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ecclesiastica , complemented by the life of Wilfrid by Stephen of Ripon (Eddius Stephanus). Ceadda was Northumbrian by birth. He had three brothers: Cedd , Cynebill , and Caelin. All four became priests, and Cedd , like Ceadda , a bishop also. They were disciples of Áedán of Lindisfarne and Ceadda studied for a time in Ireland at ' Rathmelsigi ' (probably Clonmelsh, co. Carlow ). Áedán and other Irish saints who worked in Northumbria were admired by Bede for their simple and frugal way of life and Ceadda owed much to this tradition, as did his fellow

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664 ), bishop of the East Saxons , was the eldest of four brothers who were Northumbrian and educated at Lindisfarne by Áedán and Finan. Cedd and the others, Ceadda , Cynebill , and Caelin , all became priests and Ceadda also a bishop. Nearly all that is known of them comes from Bede's Historia ecclesiastica and the principal source for this section is named as the monastery of Lastingham, Northumbria , founded by Cedd with Lindisfarne's help near the end of his life. The bias of this source can be partially corrected by reference to other sources

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holiness of the church of Lindisfarne , which Ceolwulf favoured, as subsequent events showed. In 737 (not 738 as given in some sources), the king abdicated in favour of his cousin Eadberht and was again tonsured, apparently by his own volition, to become a monk of Lindisfarne , where he died in 764 and was buried. Durham writers of the eleventh and twelfth centuries remembered him as having given the estate of Warkworth, Northumberland , to that church, and as having permitted the monks to drink wine and beer. Ecgred , bishop of Lindisfarne (from 830 to 845),

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of the portion of the Durham chronicle attributed to him. In this he followed a tradition established during the twelfth century, of adding to the work of Symeon of Durham , whose Libellus de exordio Dunelmensis ecclesiae provides an account of the see from its origins on Lindisfarne down to 1096. Geoffrey maintained the pattern set in the previous anonymous continuations, which were mainly structured as accounts of successive bishops of Durham , and so in his work, which begins at the death of Bishop William de Ste Barbe in 1152, the latter's successor

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Colmán [St Colmán] ( d. 676 ), bishop of Lindisfarne , was an Irish monk from Iona. He may conceivably be the ' Colmanus abbas ' recorded by the seventeenth-century scholar Patrick Young as the addressee of a charter, now lost, from Wulfhere, king of the Mercians ( r. 657–74), preserved in the archive of Worcester Cathedral ( AS chart. , S 1822). If so, he held ecclesiastical office in Mercia about the same time as the first two bishops of the Mercians, Diuma and Ceollach , both of whom were Irishmen. However, the charter reference is by no means

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continued to flourish under the leadership of Iona -based abbots of his own kin [ see Iona, abbots of ]. In the seventh century, as new churches in Ireland and in Pictland were added to the familia , an invitation from the Northumbrian ruler Oswald took Iona clerics to Lindisfarne , where a short-lived Columban presence made a substantial contribution to the Christianization of the north of England. In 697, the centenary year of Columba's death, about ninety of the most prominent ecclesiastical and secular leaders of Ireland and Scotland endorsed a

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W. F. Rae

revised by Eugenio F. Biagini

1872 for his services on the commission, which rendered the river navigable for sea-going ships. He was elected as a radical MP for Newcastle in July 1865, and retained his seat until his death at his residence, Stella Hall , on 19 December 1873. Cowen's ancestors came from Lindisfarne , and for three centuries they had lived, laboured, and died on Tyneside , many of them as employees at Winlaton in Sir Ambrose Crowley's factory for smith's wares. Cowen's grandfather was the last member of the Cowen family to have been employed at this factory and, when