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J. M. Whittaker

revised by Anita McConnell

to numerical calculation. Aitken overcame the difficulty, an achievement for which he was awarded a DSc in 1926. The rest of his life, all of which was spent in Edinburgh (except for a brief period during the Second World War, when he worked as a cryptanalyst in Hut 6 at Bletchley Park ), was devoted to the closely linked disciplines of numerical mathematics, statistics, and the algebra of matrices. In 1925 Aitken was appointed as lecturer in actuarial mathematics at Edinburgh and in 1936 he became a reader in statistics. Much of his later work belongs to

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Christmas congress in 1938 and won the British championship in the same year. He then became head of research in the John Lewis Partnership , London. In February 1940 Alexander joined Hut 6 (army and air force Enigma) at the Government Code and Cypher School (GCCS) at Bletchley Park , and he was quickly placed in charge of a watch. He moved to Hut 8 (naval Enigma) in March 1941, as deputy head under Alan Turing. Documents captured in the spring led to breakthroughs which enabled Hut 8 to solve the main Kriegsmarine cipher, codenamed Dolphin by GCCS

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substantial quota of Greek and Latin. He then went to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. After obtaining a first class in part one of the classical tripos and part two of the oriental studies tripos he left Cambridge in 1941 for wartime service in British intelligence at Bletchley Park. On his release from war service and return to Cambridge in 1944 he was elected a fellow of Gonville and Caius College , and in 1948 was appointed university lecturer in Tibetan, a post he held until he left Cambridge in 1968. In 1955 he moved to Jesus College , as fellow

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by the Second World War. After taking war-shortened classical moderations in 1942 he joined other brilliant young Oxbridge undergraduates and academics in the secretive world of the Government Code and Cypher School. At Bletchley Park he worked on the team breaking the communication codes used by Japanese military attachés. Bletchley Park brought together an extraordinary mix of people united behind a single aim. The writer Angus Wilson , the academic Asa Briggs , and the politician Roy Jenkins were there at about the same time. Back at Oxford in 1945

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Enigma machine, the cipher device with which the German U-boat service communicated in, as the Germans thought, an unbreakable code. Besides that day’s settings, they also recovered other material including the daily settings until the end of June, which, when delivered later to Bletchley Park , enabled Alan Turing and his team to read the German naval ‘Hydra’ code, the officer-only code, and, with the knowledge and experience gained, to go on to crack several other codes. Balme spent six hours inside U-110 , where for some time they were left alone in the Atlantic

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a post in adult education in Durham. On 19 August 1939 he married Margaret ( b. 1911) , a graduate teacher, daughter of Thomas Beirne , coalminer. They had a daughter and a son. On the outbreak of war Barker joined the intelligence corps and was at first posted to the Bletchley Park code-breaking centre; but following the fall of France he was transferred to serve as a liaison officer with the Czechoslovak forces in Britain. In April 1943 he was seconded to the Foreign Office , and two years later he returned to Prague as first secretary in the British

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readers to German scholarship. By the age of twenty-nine he was the leading authority on German medieval history in the English-speaking world. When the Second World War began, Barraclough joined the Enigma project at Bletchley Park , first as an employee of the Foreign Office , and later as a squadron leader in the Royal Air Force. In Bletchley's Hut 3 he became ‘first of the watch’, presiding over the horseshoe table where Luftwaffe dispatches were read during the battle of Britain. In 1941 he was sent to the Mediterranean , and in 1944 was seconded to

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p examination for St Andrews University , winning a Bruce open residential scholarship. His degree course was interrupted by war service from 1943. He learned Japanese and was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve in October 1944, working at Bletchley Park until March 1945, when he was transferred to Colombo in Ceylon. Demobilized in 1946, Barrow completed an honours degree in history at St Andrews in 1948, graduating as joint best finalist in the arts faculty. At this time he formed a close friendship with Ronald Cant

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Gordon Welchman , who had been in the same year as Milner-Barry at Trinity College , recruited him in early 1940 for the Government Code and Cypher School (GCCS). He joined Welchman in Hut 6 , which was responsible for the attack on German army and air force Enigma, at Bletchley Park. Milner-Barry was a co-author, together with Alexander , Alan Turing , and Welchman , of a memorandum to Winston Churchill on 21 October (Trafalgar day) 1941. They explained that the lack of a small number of junior staff (probably about a hundred) was badly delaying the

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Victorian public parks as well as high-profile cases such as Mount Edgcumbe in Plymouth. In 1995 she led the society's successful lobbying of government to become a statutory consultee on planning applications affecting registered parks and gardens, which embedded the Register firmly in the planning system. Unfailingly encouraging to enquirers and generous with her research, she maintained a voluminous correspondence with academics and scholars around the world. After many years of silence required by the Official Secrets Act , interest in Bletchley Park grew rapidly

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School he entered Peterhouse, Cambridge , in 1941 to specialize in French and German, taking a first in part one of the modern and medieval languages tripos in 1942. In 1943 he was called up to the Royal Navy , and after six months learning Japanese and further training at Bletchley Park he served as a cryptographer in Ceylon , Hong Kong , and Japan. After the war he resumed his language studies in Cambridge , graduating with a first-class BA in 1947 and—after a short spell, 1948–9 , as an assistant principal in the German section of the Foreign Office

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Oxford , Eton College , and—briefly, due to the onset of the Second World War—at Balliol College, Oxford. While at Eton he actively supported the cause of the Spanish republic and assisted child refugees from Nazi Germany. During the war he served in military intelligence at Bletchley Park. On 25 August 1941 he married Margaret Susan Anderson (1917–2004) , daughter of Hector James Anderson , a civil servant in South Africa. They had two daughters. After the war Benenson , who was called to the bar in 1948, became involved in Labour Party politics, standing

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(GCCS) , on recruiting ' men of the professor type ' (as Denniston quaintly described them) for GCCS's initial wartime establishment. The newcomers were to prove vital to GCCS's later successes against the Wehrmacht's complex Enigma cipher machine. Birch joined GCCS at Bletchley Park in September 1939, as head of the German subsection of the naval section. Initially he had only two members of staff, since the others had been moved to the Admiralty's naval intelligence division to be a liaison unit ( ID8G ) with GCCS. However, GCCS had broken no Kriegsmarine

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with Japan. In 1942 Blacker joined a course in Japanese at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London. She was subsequently recruited to join the code-breakers at Bletchley Park , but became disillusioned by the nature of the lexical work she was required to do, and was convinced that it served no useful purpose. She therefore arranged for her release from Bletchley and became a special lecturer on intensive courses in Japanese at the School of Oriental and African Studies , where General Piggott was training translators. She enrolled simultaneously

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Michael Kitson

revised by Miranda Carter

He also worked directly for MI5's most influential officer, Guy Liddell , overhauled its surveillance system, and ran liaison with other secret departments. This brought him into contact with British intelligence's most sensitive secret, Ultra, the information produced at Bletchley Park from the breaking of German military codes. The question of whether Blunt's actions led to deaths is hard to answer. As MI5's remit was internal security, most of the information to which he had access related to espionage on British soil. On the other hand, for six months

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College by unnamed men he later discovered to be Alastair Denniston , head of the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) , recently relocated to Bletchley Park , and John Tiltman , who rose to be its chief cryptographer. They suggested confidential war work involving ‘a lot of boredom with occasional excitements’ ( ‘Bletchley Park and the RAF Y Service’, 830 ). On 1 January 1940 he started at Bletchley Park and was assigned to Hut 4 , the Air Section. A formative step for Bonsall was the two months spent as a human ‘computor’ at the main RAF Y Service

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classical moderations in three terms, before being called up for military service. From basic army training in Catterick , Bownas was peremptorily selected in March 1943 for intensive training in Japanese in Bedford on transfer to the intelligence corps. He was posted to Bletchley Park in late 1943, commissioned in 1944, and sent to India , where he worked on intercepted Japanese military codes. After the surrender of Japan he was due to learn Persian, but was able to return to Oxford in January 1946 to complete the war-shortened literae humaniores degree

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Intelligence Corps. As a sergeant-major he became the youngest warrant officer in the army at that time. He went to work at Bletchley Park in Buckinghamshire , part of the code-breaking unit led by Frank Adcock. This episode in his life—‘my second university’ ( Serious Pursuits: Communications and Education, The Collected Essays of Asa Briggs, Vol 3 , 1991, 7 )—was not revealed until many years later, when he wrote a memoir about Bletchley. Working alongside other recruits such as Alan Turing and Roy Jenkins , he helped decipher enemy signals in the Mediterranean

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first hand. Bruford built up a strong department and kept up links with colleagues and writers in Germany , notably in the area of Theaterwissenschaft (the study of theatre and drama). The outbreak of the Second World War saw Bruford recalled to the Admiralty , then to Bletchley Park , from 1939 to 1943. He found time to return to his first love, Russian, in particular to Chekhov. Although different from the German tradition, Chekhov was, in Bruford's words, like Goethe in his need to generalize ' without losing concreteness ' ( Goethe and Chekhov as

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advanced, they left Athens on the last civilian boat, and travelled via Crete to Egypt , where Burn was commissioned in the intelligence corps at general headquarters Middle East in Cairo. In 1942 he was involved in cipher-breaking German intercepts at an ‘outstation’ of Bletchley Park at Heliopolis. In 1943 he was posted to Aleppo to interrogate escapers, mainly Greek, from Europe. The following year he was appointed second secretary in the British embassy to the Greek government in exile in Cairo , and worked briefly in Caserta for Harold Macmillan