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Abadam, Alice (1856–1940), suffrage activist and women’s right’s campaigner, was born in St John’s Wood, London, on 2 January 1856 (census returns 1891, 1939 Register). Her birth was not registered and she was not baptised. She was the youngest of seven children (four daughters and two sons) of ...

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See under Africans in England and Scotland

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Abrahams, Ivor (1935–2015), painter, printmaker, and art teacher, was born on 10 January 1935 at 10 Swinley Road, Wigan, Lancashire, the only son and elder child of Hyman (Harry) Abrahams, ladies’ outfitter, and his wife, Rachel (née Kalisky, later Kay). At the time of his birth registration the family lived at ...

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Abramsky, Chimen (1916–2010), bookseller and historian, was born on 16 September 1916 in Smalyavichy, near Minsk, Russia, the third of four sons of Yehezkel Abramsky (1886–1976), rabbinic scholar, and his wife, Reizel (d. 1965), daughter of the leading rabbinic figure Israel Jonathan Jerusalimsky...

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Acland [née Cropper], Eleanor Mary, Lady Acland (1878–1933), politician and suffragist, was born at Tolson Hall, Strickland Kettle, Westmorland, on 27 February 1878, the eldest of the five children (four daughters and one son) of Charles James Cropper (1852–1924) and his wife, the Hon. ...

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Adburgham [former name Abram], Jocelyn Frere (1900-1979), architect and town planner, was born at Sylvans, Peaslake, Surrey, on 24 May 1900, the second daughter of Edward William Abram (1869–1929), newspaper proprietor, and his wife, Lucy, née Ashton (1865–1942...

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Africans in England and Scotland (1485–1625) had diverse geographical origins and social backgrounds and engaged in a broad range of occupations, from household service to diplomacy. While early modern records are not comprehensive enough to give an exact account of their numbers, evidence shows they lived in cities and towns such as ...

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Norah Aiton (1903–1988) and Betty Scott (1904–1983), by Herbert Felton, 1930s

© Herbert Felton

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Aiton [married name Tollenaar], Norah (1903–1988), architect, was born on 13 June 1903, at St. Nicholas, Hanger Lane, Ealing, London, the third and youngest child of John Arthur Aiton (1864–1950), a mechanical engineer and manufacturer who became governing director of ...

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Albery, Jessica Mary (1908–1990), architect and town planner, was born at 44 Queens Road, St. John’s Wood, London, on 11 June 1908, the only daughter and eldest of three children of Irving James Albery (1879–1967), a stockbroker who was later Conservative MP for ...

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Alexander, Andrew Clive (1935–2015), journalist and author, was born on 12 May 1935 at Caer Gwent, Wykeham Road, Worthing, the elder son of Ronald Fergus Alexander (1903–1971), schoolmaster, and his wife Doreen Olivia Myfanwy, née Davies (1896–1958). He was educated at ...

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Allen, Henry Robinson (c. 1809–1876), singer, teacher, and composer, was born in Cork around 1809, the son of William Allen, gentleman. In Cork he studied music with a Mr Shaw, organist of St Peter’s Church, where he attracted attention as a boy soprano. At fourteen he was apprenticed to ...

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Allen [née Sutton], Margaret (1933–2015), journalist, was born on 19 July 1933 at 7 Highfield Street West, Dukinfield, near Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire, the elder daughter of George Sutton, a skilled toolmaker and Labour activist, and his wife Agnes, née Rogers, a millworker, and a Protestant. As a Roman Catholic, ...

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Andrew, Clara (1862–1939), child adoption pioneer and Belgian refugee organizer, was born at 7 Salutary Place, in the St Sidwells district of Exeter, on 18 May 1862, the third of nine children of Thomas Andrew (1832–1902) and his wife, Sophia, née...

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Ash [née Sidhanta], Ranjana (1924–2015), literary scholar, was born in Birbhum, West Bengal, British India, on 6 December 1924, the daughter of Nirmal Kumar Sidhanta (b. 1894), literary scholar, and his wife Chitralekha Bannerji. Her father was a professor of English literature who had studied at the ...

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See under Ash [née Sidhanta], Ranjana

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The Association for Promoting the Repeal of the Taxes on Knowledge (act. 1851–1868) was established at a meeting at Fendall’s Hotel in London, on 13 February 1851, with a view to the repeal of a number of financial burdens falling particularly but not exclusively on newspapers, collectively known by their opponents as the ‘taxes on knowledge’: the advertising duty, the newspaper stamp, and the excise on paper. In ...

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Atkinson, Sir Robert (1916–2015), naval officer and businessman, was born on 7 March 1916 at 33 Linskill Street, Tynemouth, the younger son of Nicholas Ridley (1882–1944), a builder who was then serving as a private in the Royal Marines, and his wife ...

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Audain, Ida Augusta (1854?–1932), harpist, was born around 1854 in Kingstown, St Vincent, the daughter of a merchant, John Audain, later a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils of St Vincent and owner of the Richmond Hill estate, and his black wife, ...

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Ida Audain (1854?–1932), by Herbert Rose Barraud

Clive Morley Collection