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place of refuge for him. After the 1687 indulgence, the acceptance of which she opposed, she could not risk being seen around Pentland and stayed with her father in Linton for a period of time. About this time she was engaged in gathering money and clothes for prisoners in Dunnottar Castle. Her second husband, James Currie ( d. after 1729) , was a merchant in Pentland and a more resolute nonconformist than her first husband, being one of those to whom she gave refuge. About 1687 or 1688 some nonconformist writings were deposited in their home to be sold. This

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Ayrshire. Ancestry and childhood Burns's grandfather Robert Burnes ( c.1685– c.1760) had worked as gardener to the Earl Marischal at Inverugie Castle, Aberdeenshire. Burns believed that this Robert Burnes had suffered for his Jacobite sympathies at the time of the 1715 Jacobite rising; afterwards he became a struggling farmer in Kincardineshire , and his third son, William (born at Clochnahill farm, Dunnottar, Kincardineshire ), headed south, working as a gardener first in Edinburgh and then in Ayrshire. In 1754 William engaged himself for two years

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Deane also managed to get the customs duties between England and Scotland at Carlisle and Berwick abolished. As military commander he secured the three remaining royalist garrisons: Brodick Castle on Arran and the Bass Rock , which commanded the navigation of the Forth and the sea approach to Edinburgh , fell in April 1652, while Dunnottar Castle , the ' last place in Scotland which displayed the standard of Charles II ' and the location of the regalia of Scotland , surrendered to Colonel Thomas Morgan in May ( Firth , xix ). In June Deane

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C. J. Tabraham, The honours of Scotland (1993) W. D. Collier, The Scottish regalia (1951) C. R. A. Howden, ed., ‘Papers relating to the preservation of the honours of Scotland in Dunottar Castle 1651–1652’, Publications of the Scottish History Society , 26 (1896) J. Longmuir, A day spent among the ruins of Dunnottar Castle (1835) D. G. Barron, The castle of Dunnottar and its history (1925) A. Brook, ‘Technical description of the regalia of Scotland’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland , 24 (1889–90), 49–141 private information (2009) [C

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highlands, graduated at Aberdeen in 1678. He attended dissenting meetings in London , while lodging with an Anabaptist, and was seized with Alexander Shiels in 1684. He was sent to Leith and then, chained with Shiels , to Edinburgh. On 18 May 1685 he was imprisoned at Dunnottar Castle , near Aberdeen. After three months of terrible suffering he and his wife, Mrs Jean Moffat , were among a hundred people shipped to New Jersey , where they were to be disposed of for the benefit of the laird of Pitlochie. On arrival Fraser was set free, Pitlochie and

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parliament between 1644 and 1650 and was an active member of several parliamentary committees. In 1644 he took part in fighting with the Irish confederates around Aberdeen. Owing to the city's vulnerability he was given refuge by the Earl Marischal in Dunnottar Castle, Kincardineshire. On leaving the castle one day, he was captured along with the minister, Andrew Cant , and imprisoned for several weeks in Pitcaple, Aberdeenshire. In September 1645 Jaffray and his fellow prisoners managed to overpower their guards and hold the stronghold until they were relieved

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Alexander of Buchan's conditional release from the excommunication which he had incurred for his attacks on Elgin and Forres earlier that year. Keith acquired the barony and castle of Dunnottar in Kincardineshire , probably at the time of his marriage (which had taken place by 1359) to Margaret Fraser , daughter and heir of John Fraser and Mary Stewart , sister of Robert I. Dunnottar had been owned by William, fifth earl of Sutherland; Keith and Margaret subsequently granted it to Sir William Lindsay of the Byres [ see under Lindsay family of

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bought the lands and castle of Dunnottar, Kincardineshire , from the last Earl Marischal in 1766. His father claimed the headship of the Keith family by reason of his descent from Alexander Keith of Pittendrum , fourth son of the third Earl Marischal. Robert Keith , bishop of Fife , disputed this claim and challenged it in print. However, it seems that the last Earl Marischal , who sold Dunnottar to Keith's father, recognized the claim because he sent the elder Keith all the family records as well as the ‘black stock of Dunnottar ’, an ancient oak

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should acquire some saltpetre for the defence of Dunnottar in July 1571. Faced with the enmity of her dead husband's erstwhile allies and enemies alike, she made provision to defend herself and her children, grimly reminding her secretary that, ' I am ane voman of weir [war] ' ( Moray muniments ). Confronted by Annas in full and forceful pursuit of her objectives on behalf of herself and her offspring, it is a self-assessment with which many of her contemporaries may well have agreed. Amy Blakeway Sources Darnaway Castle, Moray muniments, box 15; National Register of

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, and he continued to be a member of the commission after its courts were unified in 1615. At the Perth general assembly of 1618 he voted for the changes in worship embodied in King James's five articles of Perth. In his last years Marischal retired from public life to Dunnottar Castle, Kincardineshire. He died there on 2 April 1623 and was buried locally, in the parish church. On 30 June a funeral oration was delivered at Marischal College by the professor of moral philosophy, William Ogston , who praised the college's founder as a religious man, devoted

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parliament had passed a special act concerning his forfeited estates, which had been sold in 1720 for £3618 sterling. Marischal was granted the sale price plus interest on the sum accrued from Whitsunday 1721. On 20 February 1764 he purchased the Marischal estates centring on Dunnottar for £31,320 at auction against no other bidders. Some weeks later he received a letter from Frederick , written on 16 February, promising peace, friendship, liberty, and philosophy if he returned to Prussia. Finding the Scottish climate disagreeably harsh, and Frederick's

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Marischal (1614–1671) , was his eldest brother. In the winter of 1651–2, during the siege of Dunnottar Castle , Keith , although still a youth, played an important role in preventing the Scottish regalia, stored there for safety by the Scottish estates, from falling into the hands of English soldiers. In a scheme said to have been hatched by his mother, he acted as a decoy while the regalia were taken from the castle and hidden in Kinneff church , and on the surrender of the castle swore that he had taken them to France and delivered them to Charles II. Accepting his

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yearly rental being estimated at 270,000 merks; so widely was his property scattered that it was said that he could journey from Berwick to the northern limits of the country, eating his meals and sleeping every night on his own estates. He died on 7 October 1581, probably in Dunnottar Castle , near Stonehaven. In his later years he spent so much of his time there that he was known as William of the Tower. At his death his movable estate was valued at £44,664 7 s. 6 d. Scots. His heir was his grandson George Keith. Michael Wasser Sources Scots peerage , 6

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T. F. Henderson

revised by Steve Murdoch

1633 the Earl Marischal received him at the High Tolbooth. In the following year he fitted out a fleet, which he sent to the assistance of Uladislaus VII, king of Poland. Marischal died at his castle of Dunnottar on 28 October 1635, just one month after his last engagement with the privy council in Edinburgh. He was buried in the church at Dunnottar on 26 December. He was survived by his wife, and by eight of their children: William Keith, sixth Earl Marischal (1614–1671) , George Keith, seventh Earl Marischal , Sir Robert Keith , Alexander

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on 6 June 1651 he had been instructed to take them to safe-keeping in Dunnottar Castle. Charles II also sent property, which he valued at £20,000 sterling , to Dunnottar for safety. On his capture at Alyth , Marischal managed to send a messenger to his mother, the dowager countess, with a key to the strongroom in which he had concealed the honours. She immediately went to Dunnottar and passed custody of them to the commander of the garrison, George Ogilvie of Barras. When the castle was besieged by the English he arranged for them to be smuggled out and

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affinity by the time of his own death, before 1 July 1393. Sir William's son and heir, another Sir William Lindsay of the Byres ( d. 1414 ) , married Christian , daughter of Sir William Keith , the marischal [ see under Keith family ], receiving through her the barony and castle of Dunnottar , although in 1392 he exchanged these properties with the Keiths for the lands of Crawford Priory in Fife. He received a pension from Robert III in 1394 in recognition of his services to the crown, and in 1413 he founded a chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity in

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J. C. Hadden

revised by Douglas Brown

second, Dorothy Hawthorn Dixon in 1857. On retiring from lecturing in 1859 he was granted the degree of LLD. Longmuir published three further collections of verse, Bible Lays (1838), Ocean Lays (1854), and Lays for the Lambs (1860). He produced a popular guidebook to Dunnottar Castle in 1835, and one to Speyside in 1860. He also published a volume on a local monolith, The Maiden Stone of Bennachie (1869), A Run through the Land of Burns and the Covenanters (1872), and an edition of Alexander Ross's Helenore (1866). In addition to his other acco

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George, tenth and last Earl Marischal. In the rising of 1715 he accompanied the Earl Marischal with drawn sword to proclaim the Old Chevalier at the Cross of Aberdeen. Shortly afterwards he was appointed professor of philosophy in Marischal College and governor of Dunnottar Castle. While skulking in the hills after the rising with the highland poet Alexander Robertson of Strowan , he composed satirical verses and songs to amuse his companions. After the Indemnity, Meston lived in the household of the dowager Countess Marischal at Inverugie near

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Fairfax , Morgan failed to secure an Irish command in October, and he retired to his wife's property in Yorkshire until 1651. For six years from mid-1651 Morgan was Monck's faithful adjutant in Scotland. He was at the sack of Dundee on 1 September 1651 and captured Dunnottar Castle on 26 May 1652, though the royal regalia stored there slipped through his hands. Activity then moved to the highlands, and Morgan was put in command of all forces north of the Tay , based on Inverness. He found great difficulty in engaging Middleton's elusive royalist

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unsuccessfully besieged Cupar Castle, Fife , and held a council at Dunfermline at which he was confirmed as guardian, before marching north to besiege Strathbogie's widow in Lochindorb Castle. Edward III once more came to Perth , and set out with a small force to rescue the lady and if possible destroy Murray. He saved the lady and ravaged much of the country of Moray , but Murray eluded him and, in Edward's absence—the English king returned to spend the end of 1336 in Bothwell —took and destroyed the castles of Dunnottar , Kinneff , Lauriston , and