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libretto for Rosamond was set by Thomas Clayton , who had recently enjoyed some success with Arsinoë. It was based on the legend of fair Rosamond Clifford , the mistress of Henry II. Addison chose this subject because the plot was laid around Woodstock Park , where Blenheim Palace had just begun to take shape, so that the narrative could use features of the landscape such as Rosamond's Bower. The opera proved a failure on its first performance at Drury Lane on 4 March 1707, and has never entered the repertory in Clayton's setting. Nevertheless Tonson

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Timothy Clayton and Anita McConnell

worked for the Hoare family, bankers and landowners; he was called to St Margaret's Church, Westminster , and to Greenwich Hospital chapel; he worked for Sir William Chambers at Somerset House and Marlborough House , in London , and was responsible for chimneys at Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire. Between 1761 and 1770 he undertook much of the specialist carver's work designed by Robert Adam for George William, sixth earl of Coventry , at Croome Court, Somerset , and at the earl's London residence, where he created the most ornate portions of the furniture

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miniature, 1700, Royal Collection studio of J. Closterman, oils, 1702, NPG G. Kneller, oils, 1702, Inner Temple, London E. Lilley, oils, 1703, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire M. Dahl, oils, 1705, NPG [see illus.] C. Boit, double portrait, miniature, 1706 (with George of Denmark), Royal Collection F. Bird, statue (modern replica), 1712, St Paul's Cathedral, London M. Dahl, oils, 1712, NMM J. M. Rysback, statue, 1738, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire I. Beckett, mezzotint (after W. Wissing), BM , NPG J. Croker, medal, BM

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at Dunkirk 1713–14 and memoranda pertaining to diplomatic activities in Paris 1727–30; film, BL, MS 101 J. W. S. Connolly, ‘Notitia historica of the corps of royal engineers’, MS, 1860, Royal Engineers Corps Library, Chatham D. Green and J. Bond, ‘Blenheim after Vanbrugh: the second phase’, Blenheim : landscape for a palace , ed. J. Bond and K. Tiller (1987), 80–89 W. Porter, History of the corps of royal engineers , 2 vols. (1889) O. F. G. Hogg, The Royal Arsenal : its background, origin, and subsequent history , 2 vols. (1963) GM , 1st ser., 12 (1742), 219 GM ,

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papers collection, HL, Jan to March 1768 GEC, Peerage Walpole, Corr. C. Hicks, Improper pursuits : the scandalous life of Lady Di Beauclerk (2001) Archives Parl. Arch. , main papers Likenesses T. Hudson, group portrait, oils, 1754 (the family of the third duke of Marlborough), Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire self-portrait, 1755, Royal Collection J. Reynolds, oils, 1763–5, Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood, Hampstead, London [see illus.] F. Bartolozzi, portrait, 1780×89, repro. in Hicks A. Kauffman, oils

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R. E. Graves

revised by A. Nisbet

Benwell, John Hodges ( 1762–1785 ) Benwell, John Hodges ( 1762–1785 ), genre painter , was born on 6 May 1762 at Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire , where his father was under-steward to the duke of Marlborough. He was a pupil of a portrait painter named Sanders (possibly John Sanders; fl. 1750–1783) , and he also studied in the Royal Academy Schools , which he entered on 25 March 1779 when his age was given as ' 17 6th next May ' ( Hutchison , 144 ), and won a silver medal in 1782. He afterwards taught drawing at Bath , and produced small oval drawings of fancy

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unsuitable wife for Boruwlaski. With them were their pretty middle daughter and the youngest, a baby, the eldest being still at the court of the margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. From Birmingham the Boruwlaskis returned to London via Oxford , where Boruwlaski was taken to Blenheim Palace and gave a pair of his shoes to George Spencer, fourth duke of Marlborough , for the duke's collection of curiosities. By 27 March 1786 Boruwlaski was in London , where, as ‘Sieur Boruwlaski’ , he advertised his presence in the Morning Post; visitors were invited to call

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is known of his parentage or education, although there is some speculation that his father might also have been a gardener ( Willis , Bridgeman , 2002 ). He is first recorded by the inscription ' Bridgman Descript ' in the cartouche of an accomplished plan of the grounds of Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire , dated 1709; the quality of this drawing would seem to indicate some architectural training. On 2 May 1717, at Gray's Inn Chapel , he married Sarah Mist ( d. 1743/4) , the daughter of John Mist , a paviour from St Anne's parish in Westminster and a friend

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known as ‘the Holy Boys ’ reputedly from the Spaniards' rather surprising assumption that Britannia with her helmet, trident, and shield—and, admittedly, an olive branch—was the Virgin Mary. In 1716 the decorative artist James Thornhill's ceiling for the Great Hall in Blenheim Palace commemorated victory over the French with Britannia about to crown the duke of Marlborough with laurel, while admiring his battle plans. During the 1750s she appeared on a series of medals marking successful actions, such as that of James Wolfe in Quebec , and in the 1790s

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application secured his appointment as master gardener at Hampton Court and Richmond , and gardener at St James's. From 1764 he lived at his official residence, Wilderness House at Hampton Court. In the 1760s Brown undertook more than sixty-five commissions; these included Blenheim, Oxfordshire (from 1764), which is generally regarded as his masterpiece. Although he had a number of emulators by this time, among them Richard Woods (1715/16–1793) and William Emes (1729–1803) , he had no real rivals, and indeed Brown seems to have been content to let his

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soon reversed by the king. Calvert worked hard to shed his family's associations with the house of Stuart. He sold Woodstock Park , which he gained by marriage, to Queen Anne for a gift to John Churchill, first duke of Marlborough; it subsequently became the site of Blenheim Palace , built to celebrate Marlborough's military victory at Blindheim. By 1705 Calvert was separated from his wife, and eight years later he renounced Roman Catholicism, being confirmed in the Church of England in 1713. The obstacle of his former religion removed, he served

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taste: with its grand projecting portico of Corinthian columns and chaste decoration to walls and windows, it marked the return to a simpler, more classical manner of ornament than had been the fashion in the previous decade, typified by Vanbrugh's Castle Howard (1700) and Blenheim Palace (1705). Vitruvius Britannicus By taking part in the making of a lavishly illustrated book, Campbell established a method of self-promotion for an aspiring architect which was to last the century. Vitruvius Britannicus , a record of the principal private and public British buildings

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after much delay the numerically superior Jacobite army at Perth was moving against him. At Sheriffmuir , near Dunblane , both armies blundered into each other but Argyll managed to hold his force together while the superior Jacobite army retreated towards Perth. It was no Blenheim or Malplaquet , but Argyll had prevented the Jacobites from reaching the central lowlands of Scotland and saved the Hanoverian cause in that country and by extension in Britain. Not everyone saw his actions in quite so admiring a light. General Cadogan , an old rival of

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Chester and J. Foster, eds., London marriage licences, 1521–1869 (1887) A list of the members of the Society of Antiquaries (1798), fol. 2 v administration, 18 May 1720, TNA: PRO , PROB 6/96 Archives BL , letters to duke of Marlborough, Add. MSS 61363–61367, passim Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Blenheim MSS, letters to duke of Marlborough, A2-2

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Commons, 1690–1715 E. Cruickshanks and S. N. Handley, ‘Godfrey, Francis’, HoP, Commons, 1690–1715 Likenesses studio of P. Lely, oils, 1665–1669, Althorp, Northamptonshire oils, 1670–1679, NPG attrib. J. M. Wright, double portrait, oils (as a child with her brother Winston), Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire oils (after P. Lely), Althorp, Northamptonshire Wealth at Death wealthy; £1000 p.a. pension from James II; this settlement finally confirmed by William III in 1699; received another pension of £400 p.a. by duke of Marlborough's will, 1722; left £4000 in trust plus

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Lady Jane Stewart ( d. 1844) , whom he married on 13 January 1819, and two with his second, the Hon. Charlotte Flower ( d. 1850) , whom he married on 10 June 1846. The duke married his third wife, Jane Frances Clinton Stewart ( d. 1897) , on 18 October 1851; he died at Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire , on 1 July 1857. Norman Gash Sources HoP, Commons R. Stewart, The foundation of the conservative party, 1830–1867 (1978) N. Gash, Politics in the age of Peel (1953) Annual Register (1830) Duke of Buckingham and Chandos [R. Grenville], Memoirs of

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portico (painted by Colin Gill in 1930)—are the few reminders of her years at the palace. She also restored the fifth duke's rock garden. Religious problems haunted the marriage. In 1922 the duke was banned from the Oxford diocesan conference as a divorced and remarried man. The marriage deteriorated gravely after he was received into the Catholic church in 1927. Increasingly unhappy, Gladys took to breeding Blenheim spaniels, which, to the duke's annoyance, overran the palace, and gave British high society the excuse to brand her as eccentric, if not mad. The

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B. Closterman, oils, 1685–1690 (after J. Riley), NPG; versions, Althorp, Northamptonshire, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire attrib. G. Kneller, oils, 1690, Althorp, Northamptonshire; version, c. 1701, NPG J. B. Closterman, group portrait, oils, 1693 (with family), Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire J. Closterman, oils, 1705, Chelsea Hospital, London A. van der Werff, oils, 1705, Pitti Palace, Florence G. Kneller, oils, 1706, NPG [see illus.] I. Whood, oils, 1711, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire double portrait, oils, 1711–1720, NPG; see illus. in Armstrong, John (1674–1742)

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(1978–9), 377–403 Burke, Peerage Archives CUL , political corresp. and papers Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, Blenheim estate MSS Bodl. Oxf. , letters to Benjamin Disraeli Glos. RO , letters to Sir Michael Hicks Beach Lpool RO , letters to fourteenth earl of Derby Likenesses Ape [C. Pellegrini], lithograph, repro. in VF , 3 (1871), pl. 87 J. E. Boehm, marble bust, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford H. Gales, group portrait, watercolour ( The Derby cabinet of 1867 ), NPG H. R. Graves, oils, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire T. A. Jones, oils, Dublin Castle, Ireland Lock & Whitfield,

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in VF (5 Jan 1889) Lib [L. Prosperi], group portrait, oils ( The lobby of the House of Commons 1886 ), NPG L. Lowenstam, etching (after photograph by Bassano), Palace of Westminster, London P. May, pen-and-ink caricature, NPG Spy [L. Ward], caricature, chromolithograph, NPG; repro. in VF (1 Dec 1880) W. Story, marble bust (posthumous), Palace of Westminster, London W. Story, statue, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire J. Tenniel, pencil drawing, V&A; repro. in Punch (28 Nov 1885) E. Ward, oils, Reform Club, London etching, BM lithograph, BM prints, NPG woodburytype