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Aden, colonial administrators of (1839–1967)  

Aden (which had formed part of the Ottoman empire since 1538) was sold to Britain in 1837 by Sultan Muhsin bin Fadl of Lahej, and came under East India Company occupation in January 1839. Until 1937 Aden came under the government of India. Listed below are the ...

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Antigua and Barbuda, colonial administrators and post-independence leaders in (1632–2000)  

Antigua became an English colony in 1632, subsuming Barbuda which had been founded as an English colony four years previously. It was briefly occupied by the French in 1666–7. The governors of Antigua, 1632–71, are listed below. From 1671 to 1816 and again from 1833 to 1960 ...

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Archbishops of Canterbury (597–2020)  

The office of archbishop of Canterbury dates from the arrival in 597 of the first official Christian mission to the Anglo-Saxons, sent from Rome by Pope Gregory the Great. Monks led by Augustine settled in Canterbury, the administrative centre of Æthelberht, king of Kent, and established a cathedral (...

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Archbishops of St Andrews (1472–1689)  

When Christianity was brought to Britain by missionaries from Rome it was envisaged that Scotland would come under the jurisdiction of the northern province at York. The diocese of St Andrews was in existence no later than the tenth century, and its holder seems to have been regarded as ...

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Archbishops of Wales (1920–2020)  

The Church in Wales is an independent province of the Anglican communion with its own archbishop and six dioceses. Disestablishment from the Church of England took place in 1920 following the passage of legislation by the Liberal government in September 1914, subsequently delayed for the duration of the First World War, and amended by the ...

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Archbishops of Westminster (1850–2020)  

The re-establishment of a Roman Catholic hierarchy in England, first mooted in Rome in 1847, was finally enacted by a brief issued by Pope Pius IX on 29 September 1850. It created thirteen sees, among which that of Westminster had metropolitan status and was occupied by an archbishop. In addition its holder has always become a cardinal....

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Archbishops of York (625–2020)  

The sixth-century mission sent to England by Pope Gregory the Great was intended to establish two metropolitan sees, one in the south at London and one in the north at York. Although the southern province rapidly came into being, centred at Canterbury, the northern province took much longer to evolve. It was not until the mid-eighth-century episcopate of ...

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Assistant and permanent secretaries of the Treasury (1805–2020)  

In modern Britain the Treasury is the department responsible for managing the public revenue (including, for example, taxation, public borrowing, and expenditure). The office of assistant secretary was created in 1805, and its holder was the senior permanent official—that is, civil servant—in the department. In 1867 the title of the office became permanent secretary. On several occasions in the twentieth century the office was held jointly....

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Astronomers royal (1675–2020)  

The position of astronomer royal was established by the appointment of John Flamsteed as 'astronomical observator' to Charles II on 4 March 1675. The holder of the post was expected to improve and maintain astronomical knowledge with the intention of perfecting navigation by establishing longitude. ...

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Australia, colonial administrators and post-independence leaders in (1788–2000)  

New South Wales, the first British colony in Australia, was founded in 1788. The colony of Van Diemen's Land was founded in 1803, and was separated from New South Wales in 1825; it was renamed Tasmania in 1856. Western Australia was founded in 1829. South Australia...