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  • Type: Reference Group x


Aberdeen Philosophical Society [Wise Club] (act. 1758–1773)  

Paul Wood

Aberdeen Philosophical Society [Wise Club] (act. 1758–1773), was the most important forum for the promotion of enlightened thought and values in eighteenth-century Aberdeen.

Other clubs and societies formed in Aberdeen during the period were either short-lived or more specialized in scope. The papers of one of the founding members of the society, ...


Advisers of King John (act. 1215)  

Sophie Ambler

Advisers of King John (act. 1215), were the twenty-seven named men by whose counsel King John was described as having acted when he granted the first issue of Magna Carta, dated 15 June 1215. This same group also acted as witnesses to the charter, as set out at its close: 'witnessed as aforesaid, with many others'. A few of them were committed supporters of the king and as such earned a place in the list of ...


Africans in England and Scotland (1485–1625)  

Onyeka Nubia

Africans in England and Scotland (1485–1625) had diverse geographical origins and social backgrounds and engaged in a broad range of occupations, from household service to diplomacy. While early modern records are not comprehensive enough to give an exact account of their numbers, evidence shows they lived in cities and towns such as ...


Ally Sloper group (act. 1867–1923)  

Denis Gifford


Ally Sloper group (act. 1867–1923), cartoonists, were the makers of a comic strip. The group was founded by Charles Henry [Harry] Ross (1835–1897), magazine editor and cartoonist, who was born on 23 April 1835 in London, where he was baptized at ...


Amateur Athletic Association (act. 1880–1991)  

Richard Holt

Amateur Athletic Association (act. 1880–1991), widely known as ‘the three As’, held sway over English athletics for over a hundred years and provided a model for athletic institutions in many parts of the world. It was founded at the Randolph Hotel, Oxford, on Saturday, 24 April 1880, at a historic meeting arranged by three ...


Analytical Society (act. 1812–1813)  

William J. Ashworth

Analytical Society (act. 1812–1813), was founded by a small group of disillusioned Cambridge undergraduates who sought to challenge what they considered the dilapidated intellectual climate of Cambridge University. The aim of the society was to import the most powerful techniques of mathematical analysis and replace the Newtonian fluxional notation with the ...


Ancients (act. c. 1824–c. 1835)  

William Vaughan

Ancients (act. c. 1824–c. 1835), was an association or brotherhood of young London artists—mostly students at the Royal Academy—who turned from the conventional art of their own times to emulate that of the middle ages and early Renaissance. Its formation represents the earliest example in ...


Anglo-Norman invaders of Ireland (act. 1169–1172)  

John Cottrell

Anglo-Norman invaders of Ireland (act. 1169–1172), were initially a disparate group of frontiersmen from west Wales, whose first expedition in 1169 was successively followed by one led by the impecunious and discredited baron Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare, called Strongbow, in 1170, and then by ...


Angry young men (act. 1956–1958)  

Michael Ratcliffe

Angry young men (act. 1956–1958), was the catch-all name applied by the popular press to a group of novelists, poets, playwrights, and philosophers, most prominently Kingsley Amis, John Braine, John Osborne, Alan Sillitoe, John Wain, and Colin Wilson (1931–2013). The group was unusual in that the major figures—apart from ...


Anti-Corn Law League (act. 1839–1846)  

A. C. Howe

Anti-Corn Law League (act. 1839–1846), was a politico-economic pressure group that campaigned successfully against the British corn laws that were repealed in June 1846. It was formed on 20 March 1839 after the rejection by the House of Commons of the motions introduced by ...