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Abadam, Alice (1856–1940), suffrage activist and women’s rights campaigner  

Alexandra Hughes-Johnson

Abadam, Alice (1856–1940), suffrage activist and women’s rights campaigner, was born in St John’s Wood, London, on 2 January 1856 (census returns 1891, 1939 Register). Her birth was not registered and she was not baptised. She was the youngest of seven children (four daughters and two sons) of ...

Article

Abbott [née Lamond], Wilhelmena Hay [Elizabeth] (1884–1957), women’s movement organizer and suffrage campaigner  

Caitríona Beaumont

Abbott [née Lamond], Wilhelmena Hay [Elizabeth] (1884–1957), women’s movement organizer and suffrage campaigner, was born at Dundee, on 22 May 1884, the second daughter of Margaret McIntyre Morrison (1843/4–1925), and her husband, Andrew Lamond (1847/8–1925), formerly a jute manufacturer, who was a commission agent and import merchant. She had one older sister, ...

Article

Acland [née Cropper], Eleanor Mary, Lady Acland (1878–1933), politician and suffragist  

Mitzi Auchterlonie

Acland [née Cropper], Eleanor Mary, Lady Acland (1878–1933), politician and suffragist, was born at Tolson Hall, Strickland Kettle, Westmorland, on 27 February 1878, the eldest of the five children (four daughters and one son) of Charles James Cropper (1852–1924) and his wife, the Hon. ...

Article

Acland [formerly Ackland], James (1799–1876), orator and political reformer  

Janette Martin

Acland [formerly Ackland], James (1799–1876), orator and political reformer, was born on 21 March 1799, in the city of London, where he was baptized at All Hallows on 21 April, the second son of Headley Ackland (or Acland) (1774–1846...

Article

Actresses’ Franchise League  

Naomi Paxton

Actresses’ Franchise League [AFL] (act. 1908–1958) was formed in 1908 as ‘a bond of union between all women in the Theatrical profession who are in sympathy with the Woman’s Franchise Movement’. The organization was itself ‘strictly neutral in regard to Suffrage Tactics’ and membership was open to women who were or had been ‘connected with the Theatrical profession in any of its branches’. The constitution of the league declared its objectives as being to convince members of the theatrical profession of the necessity of extending the franchise to women on the same terms as men. It would campaign by using what it called ‘educational methods’ including propaganda meetings, and plays, sale of literature, and lectures (...

Article

Adams, William Edwin [pseuds. Caractacus, Ironside, Uncle Toby] (1832–1906), radical and journalist  

Owen R. Ashton

Adams, William Edwin [pseuds. Caractacus, Ironside, Uncle Toby] (1832–1906), radical and journalist, was born in humble circumstances in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, on 11 February 1832, the son of John Adams, a tramping plasterer, and his wife, Sarah, née Wells. He was raised by his widowed maternal grandmother, ...

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Cover Aitken, James (1752–1777)

Aitken, James (1752–1777)  

Maker: unknown engraver

In 

James Aitken (1752–1777) by unknown engraver, pubd 1777 (after W. Cave) © Copyright The British Museum

Article

Aitken, James [alias John the Painter] (1752–1777), radical and arsonist  

Neil L. York

Aitken, James [alias John the Painter] (1752–1777), radical and arsonist, was born in Edinburgh on 28 September 1752 to George Aitken, a blacksmith, and his wife, Magdalen. The eighth of twelve children, James qualified for admission as an impoverished student to Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh...

Article

Aitken, William (1812?–1869), Chartist and factory reformer  

Robert G. Hall

Aitken, William (1812?–1869), Chartist and factory reformer, was born in a barrack room near Dunbar, possibly on 2 June 1812, the youngest but one of nine children of Scottish parents, natives of Duns. His father, originally a cordwainer, served thirty years in the army and rose to the rank of sergeant-major. After leaving the army ...

Article

Anderson, Louisa Garrett (1873–1943), surgeon and suffragette  

Jennian Geddes

Anderson, Louisa Garrett (1873–1943), surgeon and suffragette, was born at the house of her paternal uncle, 9 Lyndhurst Road, Hampstead, London, on 28 July 1873, the eldest of the three children and the only surviving daughter of James George Skelton Anderson (1838–1907), shipowner, and his wife, the pioneering physician ...

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Cover Anderson, Louisa Garrett (1873–1943)

Anderson, Louisa Garrett (1873–1943)  

Maker: Francis Dodd

In 

Louisa Garrett Anderson (1873–1943) by Francis Dodd © reserved / artist's estate / Royal Free Hospital

Article

Ansell, Gertrude Mary (1861–1932), suffragette and businesswoman  

Elizabeth Crawford

Ansell, Gertrude Mary (1861–1932), suffragette and businesswoman, was born on 2 June 1861 at 1 Vernon Place, Bloomsbury, London, the third child and only daughter of George Frederick Ansell (1826–1880) and his wife, Sarah Cook. Her father, a scientific chemist, had in 1856 been appointed to a clerkship in the ...

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Cover Ansell, Gertrude Mary (1861–1932)

Ansell, Gertrude Mary (1861–1932)  

Maker: unknown photographer

In 

Gertrude Mary Ansell (1861–1932) by unknown photographer, 1914 [police identification photograph issued by New Scotland Yard] © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Arnold, Ethel Margaret (bap. 1865–1930), journalist, author, and lecturer on female suffrage  

Anne M. Sebba

Arnold, Ethel Margaret (bap. 1865–1930), journalist, author, and lecturer on female suffrage, was born at Harborne, Staffordshire. No birth certificate has been found. She was baptized at Chaddesley Corbet, Worcestershire, on 26 May 1865, the fourth daughter of Thomas Arnold (1823–1900), teacher and English scholar, and his wife, ...

Article

Arnold, Sir (Robert) Arthur (1833–1902), radical and writer  

G. S. Woods

revised by Jonathan Spain

Arnold, Sir (Robert) Arthur (1833–1902), radical and writer, born on 28 May 1833 at Gravesend, Kent, was the third son of the three sons and three daughters of Robert Coles Arnold JP (b. 1797), of Whartons, Framfield, Sussex, and Sarah, daughter of ...

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Cover Arnold, Sir (Robert) Arthur (1833–1902)

Arnold, Sir (Robert) Arthur (1833–1902)  

Maker: Leonard Watts

In 

Sir (Robert) Arthur Arnold (1833–1902) by Leonard Watts Guildhall Art Gallery, Corporation of London

Article

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Article

Ashton, William (c. 1806–1877), Chartist  

Dorothy Thompson

Ashton, William (c. 1806–1877), Chartist, was born in the Yorkshire linen-weaving and coal-mining town of Barnsley about 1806. His father was an Englishman, and a linen weaver, and his mother was an Irish Catholic. Ashton always identified strongly with his mother's nation and faith and often spoke of himself as an Irishman....

Article

Ashurst, William Henry [pseud. Edward Search] (bap. 1791?, d. 1855), lawyer and radical  

Matthew Lee

Ashurst, William Henry [pseud. Edward Search] (bap. 1791?, d. 1855), lawyer and radical, was born in London, and was probably the William Henry Ashurst baptized on 20 March 1791 at St Luke's, Old Street, the son of Brusel Ashurst and his wife, ...

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Cover Ayrton [née Marks], (Phoebe) Sarah [Hertha] (1854–1923)

Ayrton [née Marks], (Phoebe) Sarah [Hertha] (1854–1923)  

Maker: Héléna Arsène Darmesteter

In 

Sarah Ayrton [Hertha] (1854–1923), by Héléna Arsène Darmesteter

The Mistress and Fellows, Girton College, Cambridge