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Dreschfeld, Julius (1845–1907), pathologist and physician, was born on 13 October 1845 at Niederwären, near Bamberg, Bavaria, the youngest son in a family of five sons and five daughters of Samuel Dreschfeld, a well-to-do merchant, and his wife, Giedel. His parents were well-respected Orthodox Jews; his father lived until the age of ninety-two, and his mother to ninety-seven. In 1861, after completing his early education at the ...

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Roderigo Lopez (c. 1517–1594) by Frederik van Hulsen, 1627 [right, with a Spanish gentleman] The British Library

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Lopez [Lopes], Roderigo [Ruy, Roger] (c. 1517–1594), physician and alleged conspirator, was born in Portugal, where his father, António Lopes, was physician to João III. A New Christian, or son of a Jew baptized by force in 1497, he studied at the University of Coimbra...

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Mendes, Fernando Moses (1647–1724), physician and entrepreneur, was born at Trancoso, Beira Alta, Portugal, into a wealthy family of New Christian merchants and officials. He was one of the ten children of António Jacob Mendes da Costa (d. 1716), a merchant, and ...

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Nunes [Nuñez], Hector [known as Dr Hector] (1520–1591), physician and merchant, was born in Evora, Portugal. His family were among those Jews who had been forcibly baptized in 1497 by order of King Manuel I. He studied medicine at Coimbra University, taking a BA in 1540 and an MB in 1543. Because at this time the ...

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Ribeiro, Samuel [formerly Diogo] Nunes (b. 1667/8, d. in or after 1741), physician, was born and baptized in the parish of Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Idanha a Nova, Portugal, the son of Manuel Henriques Lucena and Maria Nunes, who were of Jewish origin. He qualified as a doctor of medicine after studying at ...

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Samuda, Isaac [Ishac] de Sequeira [formerly Simão Lopes Samuda] (bap. 1681, d. 1729), physician and poet, was baptized in Lisbon in 1681. He was the second son of Rodrigo de Sequeira, merchant, and his wife, Violante Nunes Rosa, who were both of Jewish origin. He was named after his maternal grandfather, ...

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Jacob de Castro Sarmento (1692?–1762) by Richard Houston (after Robert Edge Pine) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sarmento, Jacob de Castro [formerly Henrique de Castro] (1692?–1762), physician and scientific writer, was born at Bragança, Portugal, as Henrique, the third son of Francisco de Castro de Almeida (b. 1651/2), tobacco merchant (estanqueiro), and his second wife, ...

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Isaac Schomberg (1714–1780) by Thomas Hudson The Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, CA, USA

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W. P. Courtney

revised by Edgar Samuel

Schomberg, Isaac (1714–1780), physician, eldest son of Meyer Löw Schomberg (1690–1761), and twin brother of Ralph or Raphael Schomberg, was born at Schweinsberg, Germany, on 14 August 1714. He was a pupil at Merchant Taylors' School, London, from 1726 to 1731, and subsequently received a doctorate in medicine from the ...