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Thomas Blood (1617/1818–1680) by unknown artist The Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge

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Blood, Thomas (1617/18–1680), adventurer and spy, was born at Sarney, co. Meath. His early life is obscure, but it was later claimed that his father (who was possibly Neptune Blood) was a blacksmith and ironworker, 'serious, honest and of no inferior credit...

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Bourchier, Sir John (c. 1595–1660), politician and regicide, was the second but eldest surviving son of William Bourchier (1559–c.1631) of Beningborough, and his wife, Katherine (c.1565–1623), daughter of Sir Thomas Barrington of Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex. He was descended from a family of Norman extraction, a branch of which had settled in ...

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Cawley, William (bap. 1602, d. 1667), politician and regicide, the eldest son of John Cawley (d. 1621), a brewer of Chichester who was three times mayor, and his third wife, Catherine, was born in Chichester and baptized on 3 November 1602 at ...

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Charlton, Francis (bap. 1639, d. 1698), politician and conspirator, was baptized on 16 May 1639 at Wellington, Shropshire, the son of Francis Charlton of Apley Castle, Shropshire (d. 1642), and his wife, Mary (d. 1661), the daughter of Osmary Hill. This younger ...

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Chester, Charles (c. 1554–1604), informer and wit, probably born in Bristol, was one of ten children of Dominic Chester (d. 1575), merchant and MP, and his wife, Mary (d. 1572), the daughter of Roger Barlow, merchant and explorer, and his wife, ...

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Cragg, Robert (fl. 1682–1689), conspirator and rebel, made three journeys between London and the Netherlands, under the alias of John Smith, in March–April of 1685, carrying messages between the surviving whig opposition in England and the exiled duke of Monmouth, who was preparing his ill-fated rebellion of June–July 1685. These communications carried by ...

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Dixwell, John [alias James Davids] (c. 1607–1689), politician and regicide, was the younger son of Edward Dixwell of Coton, Warwickshire, and his wife, Mary (née Hawksworth), although he may have been brought up by an uncle, Sir Basil Dixwell of Brome...

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Hewson, John, appointed Lord Hewson under the protectorate (fl. 1630–1660), army officer and regicide, rose to prominence from low social origins. During the 1630s he was employed as a shoemaker or cobbler in Westminster and Edward Hyde later claimed that he was also for a time a brewer's clerk. In 1642 he enlisted in the parliamentarian forces and subsequently served under the earls of ...

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Holland, Cornelius (1600–1671?), politician and regicide, the eldest son of Ralph Holland (1581–1625), Merchant Taylor, of London, and his wife, Joan (d. 1634), was born at St Laurence Pountney, London, on 3 March 1600; his family may have been that which had been prominent in the ...

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Lisle, John, appointed Lord Lisle under the protectorate (1609/10–1664), regicide, was the second, but eldest surviving, son of Sir William Lisle (d. 1648) of Wootton, Isle of Wight, and Bridget, daughter of Sir John Hungerford of Down Ampney, Gloucestershire. On 25 January 1626 he matriculated at ...

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Livesay [Livesey], Sir Michael, first baronet (1614–1665?), politician and regicide, was the only surviving son of Gabriel Livesay (d. 1622) of Hollingborne, Kent, and his second wife, Anne, daughter of Sir Michael Sondes, of Throwley. Although often portrayed as an upstart family, the ...

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Love, Nicholas (bap. 1608, d. 1682), politician and regicide, was baptized on 26 October 1608 in St Swithun's, Winchester, the son of Dr Nicholas Love (d. 1630), headmaster of Winchester College, and his wife, Dousabell Colnett. He matriculated at Wadham College, Oxford...

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W. P. Courtney

revised by Ruth Spalding

Mayne, Symon [Simon] (bap. 1612, d. 1661), regicide, was baptized at Dinton, Buckinghamshire, on 17 February 1612, the son and heir of Symon Mayne (1576/7–1617) of Dinton Hall, near Aylesbury, and his wife, Coluberry (d. 1629), daughter of Richard Lovelace of Hurley, Berkshire...

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Norton, Edward (bap. 1654, d. 1702), conspirator, was the second son of Sir George Norton (d. 1677) of Abbots Leigh, Somerset, and Ellen, daughter of Sir William Owen of Condover in Shropshire. Norton's father, the ward of Sir John Strangeways, remained neutral during the civil war but did conceal ...

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C. H. Firth

revised by Timothy Venning

Phelps, John (b. 1618/19), government official and regicide, was the second son of Robert Phelps (d. 1622), gentleman, of Salisbury, and his wife, Sarah. He matriculated from Corpus Christi College, Oxford, on 20 May 1636, aged seventeen, and entered the Middle Temple...

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Potter, Vincent (c. 1614–1661?), parliamentarian army officer and regicide, was born, apparently in Warwickshire, of unknown parents. Potter was an original member of the Massachusetts Bay Company, and in mid-May 1635 he sailed out of London on the Elizabeth and Ann, bound for ...

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Row, John (fl. 1666–1702), conspirator, was admitted to the Merchant Venturers of Bristol on 15 October 1666 and became the city's sword-bearer in 1677, a position that gave him a prominent role in civic ceremony and access to influential people. Almost nothing is known of his background. In January 1680 the ...

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Rowe, Owen (1592/3–1661), merchant and regicide, was one of seven sons of John Rowe (d. before 1613), yeoman, of Bickley, Chester. On 11 August 1609 he was apprenticed for eight years to Edward Pickering, citizen and haberdasher of London. He was listed as a haberdasher, of ...

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Ruthven, John, third earl of Gowrie (1577/8–1600), magnate and alleged conspirator, was born in 1577 or 1578 in Perth, the second son of William Ruthven, first earl of Gowrie (c. 1543–1584), and his wife, Dorothea Stewart. He succeeded to the earldom in 1588 on the death of his older brother, ...