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Sir George Back (1796–1878) by Maull & Polyblank Howarth-Loomes Collection; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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A. H. Beesly

revised by Andrew Lambert

Back, Sir George (1796–1878), naval officer and explorer, was born on 6 November 1796 at Stockport, Cheshire, the second son of John Back and his wife, Ann. He entered the navy as midshipman of the Arethusa in 1808. He was present at the destruction of the batteries at ...

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Campbell, Victor Lindsey Arbuthnot (1875–1956), naval officer and Antarctic explorer, was born on 20 August 1875 at 16 Adelaide Crescent, Hove, Sussex, son of Captain Hugh Campbell RN, commander of the royal yacht Victoria and Albert, and his wife, Lucy Eleanor Archer. Educated at ...

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J. K. Laughton

revised by Andrew Lambert

Collinson, Sir Richard (1811–1883), naval officer and explorer, was born on 7 November 1811 at Gateshead, co. Durham, where his father, the Revd John Collinson (c.1791–1857), was rector. His mother was Amelia, née King (b. 1783), daughter of the philanthropist ...

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Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier (1796–1848) by unknown photographer, 1845 © National Maritime Museum, London

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Crozier, Francis Rawdon Moira (1796–1848), naval officer and polar explorer, was born on 17 September 1796 at Banbridge, co. Down, Ireland, the son of George Crozier (d. 1831), lawyer. He was the fifth son in the family and had at least two sisters. It seems probable that he was related to ...

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Sir John Franklin (1786–1847) by Baird, 1845 © National Maritime Museum, London

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Franklin, Sir John (1786–1847), naval officer and Arctic explorer, was born on 16 April 1786 in Spilsby, Lincolnshire, the ninth of the twelve children of Willingham Franklin (d. 1824), a mercer, and his wife, Hannah Weekes. He had four brothers and seven sisters, and was educated at a preparatory school in ...

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Inglefield, Sir Edward Augustus (1820–1894), naval officer and Arctic explorer, was born in Cheltenham on 27 March 1820. He was the eldest son of Rear-Admiral Samuel Hood Inglefield (1783–1848), who died when commander-in-chief in the East Indies and China, and his wife, Priscilla Margaret...

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George Francis Lyon (1795–1832) by John Jackson Christie's Images Ltd. (2004)

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Lyon, George Francis [alias Said-ben-Abdallah] (1795–1832), naval officer and explorer, son of a colonel in the army, was born at Chichester, Sussex. Around 1805 he was educated at Dr Burney's naval academy, Gosport, Hampshire, and entered the navy in 1808, had the commission of lieutenant confirmed in 1814, and saw much action....

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Maker: unknown photographer

Sir Albert Hastings Markham (1841–1918) by unknown photographer, pubd 1913 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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R. N. Rudmose Brown

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Markham, Sir Albert Hastings (1841–1918), naval officer and Arctic explorer, was born at Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Hautes Pyrénées, France, on 11 November 1841, the fourth son of Captain John Markham RN (b. 1797) and his wife, Marianne, daughter of John Brock Wood. Clements Robert Markham (1830–1916)...

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Sir (Francis) Leopold McClintock (1819–1907) by Stephen Pearce, 1859 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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McClintock, Sir (Francis) Leopold (1819–1907), naval officer and Arctic explorer, born at Dundalk, co. Louth, on 8 July 1819, was the eldest son of Henry McClintock, formerly of the 3rd dragoon guards, customs collector of Dundalk, and his wife, Elizabeth Melesina, daughter of the ...

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Moore, Thomas Edward Laws (c. 1820–1872), naval officer and polar explorer, was born in Brompton, Chatham, Kent. Nothing is known of his family or youth. He entered the Royal Navy as volunteer of the first class on 19 October 1833, but his early years in the service cannot be traced. From 1839 to 1843 he took part in ...

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Sir (William) Edward Parry (1790–1855) by Samuel Drummond, in or before 1820 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Parry, Sir (William) Edward (1790–1855), naval officer and Arctic explorer, fourth son of Caleb Hillier Parry (1755–1822), physician, and Sarah, née Rigby (1749–1831), was born at Bath on 19 December 1790. After briefly attending Bath grammar school, he entered the navy in 1803 on board the ...

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Sir James Clark Ross (1800–1862) by John R. Wildman, 1833–4 © National Maritime Museum, London

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Ross, Sir James Clark (1800–1862), polar explorer and naval officer, was born on 15 April 1800, possibly in Scotland, the third son of George Ross, a London businessman from an eminent family from Balsarroch, Wigtownshire, and Christian Clark. He was the nephew of ...