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John André (1750–1780) by John Keyse Sherwin, 1781 (after self-portrait, 1780) © National Portrait Gallery, London


Richard Garnett

revised by Troy O. Bickham

André, John (1750–1780), army officer and spy, was born in London on 2 May 1750, the eldest son of Anthony André (1717–1769), a Genevese merchant settled in the city, and Marie Louise Girardot (1721?–1813). He had at least one brother and sister. He was educated at home and possibly at ...


Bampfield, Joseph (1622–1685), army officer and spy, was probably born in Devon, one of a family long established in the west country, but his parentage and early life are obscure. There is no validity for the earl of Clarendon's later statement that he was an Irishman, although he may have been educated at ...


H. M. Chichester

revised by D. G. Halliday

Grant, John (1782?–1842), army officer and spy, was born at Elgin, Moray. He began his military career as an ensign on 2 November 1797 (lieutenant, 31 May 1798) in the Royal Glamorgan militia, with which he served in Ireland in 1799. In the same year he volunteered to the line from the ...