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Peter Thomas Bauer, Baron Bauer (1915–2002) by Nick Sinclair, 1992 © Nick Sinclair; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bauer, Peter Thomas, Baron Bauer (1915–2002), economist, was born on 6 November 1915 in Budapest, the son of Aladár Dezsö Bauer (1883–1944), bookmaker, and his wife, Anna, née Grossmann. He attended the Scholae Piae (a Gymnasium of the Piarist order) and enrolled for a law degree at the ...

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Leopold Bernhard Bonn (1850–1929) by Lienhard & Salzborn Royal National Institute for the Deaf

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Bonn, Leopold Bernhard (1850–1929), banker and philanthropist, was born on 3 August 1850 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the ninth child of Baruch Bonn, a prominent Jewish banker. He was privately educated. After the annexation of Frankfurt by Prussia in 1866, Bonn applied for denaturalization and moved to ...

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Sir Ernest Joseph Cassel (1852–1921) by Anders Leonard Zorn, 1909 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Cassel, Sir Ernest Joseph (1852–1921), merchant banker and financier, was born on 3 March 1852 in Cologne, Germany, the youngest of the three children of Jacob Cassel (1802–1875) and Amalia, née Rosenheim (d. 1874). Jacob Cassel had a small banking business, founded by his father, ...

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See D'Erlanger, Baron Emile Beaumont

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Eveske, Elias l' (d. in or after 1259), financier and leader of the Jewish community in England, was the eldest of the several sons of Benedict l'Eveske of London. Born before 1200, he became a prominent figure during the 1220s, and by the 1230s was firmly established as one of the leading members of the ...

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Hambro, Baron Carl Joachim (1807–1877), merchant banker, was born at Copenhagen into a Jewish-Danish merchant family. He was the only child of Joseph Hambro (1780–1848), merchant and banker, and his wife, Marianne von Halle (1786–1838), daughter of Copenhagen merchant WulfLevin von Halle. His grandfather was ...

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Hatry, Clarence Charles (1888–1965), company promoter, was born on 16 December 1888 at 48 Belsize Park, London, the eldest of four sons of Julius Hatry (1856/7–1907), silk merchant, and his wife, Henriette Ellen Katzenstein (1861/2–1943). In childhood he felt lonely, browbeaten, and disheartened by a severe father and a mother whom he thought snobbish and neglectful; he was a dreamy, inward, and dissatisfied child. After attending ...

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Leone Levi (1821–1888) by Elliott & Fry, 1873 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Levi, Leone (1821–1888), jurist, political economist, and statistician, was born on 6 June 1821 in Ancona, later part of the kingdom of Italy. He came from a middle-class Jewish family. His father, Isaac, and his elder brother were both merchants. Leone received a practical, commercial education and began working for his brother at the age of fifteen. He travelled to ...

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Mendes, Fernando Moses (1647–1724), physician and entrepreneur, was born at Trancoso, Beira Alta, Portugal, into a wealthy family of New Christian merchants and officials. He was one of the ten children of António Jacob Mendes da Costa (d. 1716), a merchant, and ...

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Meyer, Sir Carl Ferdinand, first baronet (1851–1922), financier, was born at Hamburg, Germany, on 23 December 1851, the second son of Siegmund Meyer (1815–1882) and his wife, Elise Rosa (d. 1855), daughter of Reuben Hahn. He was educated abroad and went to ...

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See Mond family

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Maker: unknown photographer

Sir Ernest Oppenheimer (1880–1957) by unknown photographer De Beers Consolidated Mines, South Africa

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Oppenheimer, Sir Ernest (1880–1957), diamond merchant and financier, was born in Friedberg, Germany, on 22 May 1880, the fifth son and eighth child of Eduard Oppenheimer (1841–1924), cigar merchant, and his wife, Nanny Hirschhorn (1841–1912). From the age of ten he was educated in French and classics at the ...

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David Ricardo (1772–1823) by Thomas Phillips, exh. RA 1821 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Ricardo, David (1772–1823), political economist, was born on 18 April 1772 at 36 Broad Street Buildings in the City of London, the third surviving child of Abraham Israel Ricardo (1733?–1812) and his wife, Abigail Delvalle (1753–1801). Sarah Ricardo Porter was his sister. The ...

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Salomons, Leopold (1841–1915), financier and landowner, was born at 22 Claremont Terrace, Pentonville, London, on 14 May 1841, the younger son of Abraham Solomons (c.1794–1877) and his wife, Betty, née Simon-Hirsch, otherwise Simpson (c.1808–1860). His mother was an immigrant from ...