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Cover Charles Lewis (1618–1680)

Charles Lewis (1618–1680)  

Maker: Johann Baptist de Ruel

In 

Charles Lewis (1618–1680) by Johann Baptist de Ruel Kurpfälzisches Museum, Heidelberg; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Charles Lewis [Karl Ludwig] (1618–1680), elector palatine of the Rhine  

Ronald G. Asch

Charles Lewis [Karl Ludwig] (1618–1680), elector palatine of the Rhine, second and eldest surviving son of Frederick V, elector palatine (1596–1632) [see under Elizabeth (1596–1662)], and his wife, Elizabeth Stuart [see Elizabeth (1596–1662)], was born on 1 January 1618 ns in ...

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D'Auvergne, Philippe (bap. 1754, d. 1816), naval officer and claimant to the duchy of Bouillon  

James Falkner

D'Auvergne, Philippe (bap. 1754, d. 1816), naval officer and claimant to the duchy of Bouillon, was born in St Helier, Jersey, Channel Islands, and baptized at St Helier parish church on 13 November 1754. He was the only surviving child of Charles Dauvergne...

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Eadgyth (c. 911–946), queen of the East Franks, consort of Otto I  

Pauline Stafford

Eadgyth (c. 911–946), queen of the East Franks, consort of Otto I, was born in Wessex, the daughter of Edward the Elder (870s?–924), king of the Anglo-Saxons, and his second wife, Ælfflæd. She was thus half-sister of Æthelstan, king of England (893/4–939) and ...

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Ernest Augustus, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1674–1728), bishop of Osnabrück  

Matthew Kilburn

Ernest Augustus, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1674–1728), bishop of Osnabrück, was born in Osnabrück on 7 / 17 September 1674 and named, in German, Ernst August. He was the sixth son and seventh and youngest child of Sophia (1630–1714), later designated heir presumptive to the English throne by the ...

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See Elizabeth, Princess [Elizabeth Stuart]

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Cover Frederick, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1763–1827)

Frederick, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1763–1827)  

Maker: Sir David Wilkie

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Prince Frederick, duke of York and Albany (1763–1827) by Sir David Wilkie, 1822–3 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Frederick, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1763–1827), army officer and bishop of Osnabrück  

H. M. Stephens

revised by John Van der Kiste

Frederick, Prince, duke of York and Albany (1763–1827), army officer and bishop of Osnabrück, was the second son of George III and Queen Charlotte. He was born at St James's Palace, London, on 16 August 1763, and on 27 February 1764 was elected to the bishopric of ...

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Leopold I (1790–1865), king of the Belgians  

Janet L. Polasky

Leopold I (1790–1865), king of the Belgians, was born on 16 December 1790 in Coburg, the eighth child and third son of Prince Francis Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1750–1806), heir to the German duchy of Coburg, and Augusta Caroline Sophia of Reuss-Ebersdorff (1757–1831). His baptismal names were ...

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Cover Leopold I (1790–1865)

Leopold I (1790–1865)  

Maker: Franz Xaver Winterhalter

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Leopold I (1790–1865) by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1840 © Photo RMN

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Cover Manuel II (1889–1932)

Manuel II (1889–1932)  

Maker: Philip A. de Laszlo

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Manuel II (1889–1932) by Philip A. de Laszlo, 1914 The de László Foundation; Witt Library, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Manuel II (1889–1932), king of Portugal  

Rui Ramos

Manuel II (1889–1932), king of Portugal, was born on 15 November 1889 at the royal palace of Belém, in Lisbon, the second of the two children of Carlos I (1863–1908), king of Portugal (1889–1908), and his wife, Queen Amélie (1864–1951), daughter of Louis Philippe d'Orléans, ...

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Neuhoff, Theodor Stefan von, Baron von Neuhoff (1694–1756), king of Corsica  

C. E. A. Cheesman

Neuhoff, Theodor Stefan von, Baron von Neuhoff (1694–1756), king of Corsica, was born in Cologne on 24 August 1694, second child and only son of Anton, Baron von Neuhoff (d. 1695), of a Westphalian family, and Amelia, the daughter of a draper of ...

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Cover Philip (1527–1598)
Philip (1527–1598) by Titian, 1551? Museo del Prado, Madrid / Bridgeman Art Library

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Philip [Philip of Spain, Felipe] (1527–1598), king of England and Ireland, consort of Mary I, and king of Spain  

Glyn Redworth

Philip [Philip of Spain, Felipe] (1527–1598), king of England and Ireland, consort of Mary I, and king of Spain, has left only an ephemeral impression upon the English historical record. Although his time as co-monarch has largely vanished from the collective memory, to be replaced by images of invincible armadas and inquisitorial fires, it remains true that during his years of kingship (and especially during his two lengthy periods of residence in ...

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Cover Richard, first earl of Cornwall and king of Germany (1209–1272)

Richard, first earl of Cornwall and king of Germany (1209–1272)  

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Richard, first earl of Cornwall and king of Germany (1209–1272) seal [as king of the Romans] Landeshauptarchiv, Koblenz, Best. 133 Nr. 18

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Richard, first earl of Cornwall and king of Germany (1209–1272)  

Nicholas Vincent

Richard, first earl of Cornwall and king of Germany (1209–1272), was born at Winchester on 5 January 1209, the second son of King John (1167–1216) and his queen, Isabella of Angoulême (c. 1188–1246).