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Britannia (fl. 1st–21st cent.), allegory of a nation, emblem of empire, and patriotic icon  

Virginia Hewitt

Britannia (fl. 1st–21st cent.), allegory of a nation, emblem of empire, and patriotic icon, is by origin a child of Rome, representing an outpost of the Roman empire. Her earliest known appearances did not augur well for her future: rock reliefs at Aphrodisias...

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Cover Britannia (fl. 1st–21st cent.)

Britannia (fl. 1st–21st cent.)  

Maker: Jan Roettier

In 

Britannia (fl. 1st– cent.21st) by Jan Roettier, 1667 [reverse] © Copyright The British Museum

Article

Bull, John (supp. fl. 1712–), fictitious epitomist of Englishness and British imperialism  

Miles Taylor

Bull, John (supp. fl. 1712–), fictitious epitomist of Englishness and British imperialism, first appeared in print in The History of John Bull, a political allegory—sometimes wrongly attributed to Jonathan Swift, but now accepted as the work of John Arbuthnot, Queen Anne's physician. The ...

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Cover Bull, John (supp. fl. 1712–)

Bull, John (supp. fl. 1712–)  

Maker: Charles Williams

In 

John Bull (supp. fl. 1712–) by Charles Williams, c. 1816 © Copyright The British Museum

Article

Colomb, Sir John Charles Ready (1838–1909), defence strategist and advocate of imperial federation  

John F. Beeler

Colomb, Sir John Charles Ready (1838–1909), defence strategist and advocate of imperial federation, second son of Lieutenant-General George Thomas Colomb (1788–1874), colonel of the 97th regiment, and his wife, Mary, daughter of Sir Abraham Bradley King, bt, of Corrard, co. Fermanagh, was born on the ...

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Cover Colomb, Sir John Charles Ready (1838–1909)

Colomb, Sir John Charles Ready (1838–1909)  

Maker: Bassano

In 

Sir John Charles Ready Colomb (1838–1909) by Bassano, c. 1894 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Fessenden [née Trenholme], Clementina (1845–1918), originator of Empire day  

Terry Crowley

Fessenden [née Trenholme], Clementina (1845–1918), originator of Empire day, was born in the hamlet of Trenholme, Lower Canada, on 30 May 1845, the fourth daughter of Edward Trenholme (d. 1865), farmer and inventor, and Marion, née Ridley. Her grandparents William and Ann (Winn) Trenholme...

Article

Founders of the Victoria League (act. 1901–1914)  

Eliza Riedi

The founders of the Victoria League (act. 1901–1914) created the only predominantly female imperial propaganda society in Edwardian Britain. Run by a group of distinguished women, it attracted the active support of many well-known male imperialists while maintaining an overwhelmingly female membership, leadership, and image. As such, it specialized in transforming areas of work that were acknowledged as belonging to women’s ‘separate sphere’ into innovative methods of imperial propaganda, aiming both to ensure the continuing loyalty of the ‘white dominions’ to the empire and to develop imperial sentiment at home....

Article

Hawksley, Bourchier Francis (1851–1915), lawyer and imperialist  

Robert I. Rotberg

Hawksley, Bourchier Francis (1851–1915), lawyer and imperialist, was born on 4 April 1851 at Barlborough, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, the son of John Hawksley, a Church of England priest who in 1874 was commissioner to the bishop of Saskatchewan and in 1883 became an honorary canon of ...

Article

Jebb, Richard (1874–1953), publicist and theorist on imperial themes  

J. D. Miller

revised

Jebb, Richard (1874–1953), publicist and theorist on imperial themes, was born at The Lyth, Ellesmere, Shropshire, on 16 October 1874, the second son in the family of two sons and five daughters of Arthur Trevor Jebb (1839–1894), landowner, and his wife, Eglantyne Louisa...

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Cover Mackinnon, Sir William, baronet (1823–1893)

Mackinnon, Sir William, baronet (1823–1893)  

Maker: Eveleen Myers

In 

Sir William Mackinnon, baronet (1823–1893) by Eveleen Myers © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Mackinnon, Sir William, baronet (1823–1893), shipping entrepreneur and imperialist  

E. I. Carlyle

revised by John S. Galbraith

Mackinnon, Sir William, baronet (1823–1893), shipping entrepreneur and imperialist, born at Campbeltown, Argyll, on 31 March 1823, was the son of Duncan Mackinnon (d. 1836) of Campbeltown and his wife, Isabella (d. 1861), daughter of John Currie of the same town. He was educated at ...

Article

Maguire, James Rochfort (1855–1925), company director and imperialist  

Colin Newbury

Maguire, James Rochfort (1855–1925), company director and imperialist, was born at Kilkeedy, co. Limerick, on 4 October 1855, the second son of John Mulock Maguire, rector of Kilkeedy, and his wife, Anne Jane, née Humphreys. He was educated at Cheltenham College and at ...

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Cover Maguire, James Rochfort (1855–1925)

Maguire, James Rochfort (1855–1925)  

Maker: unknown engraver

James Rochfort Maguire (1855–1925) by unknown engraver, pubd 1895 (after Walery) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Cover Milner, Violet Georgina, Viscountess Milner (1872–1958)

Milner, Violet Georgina, Viscountess Milner (1872–1958)  

Maker: unknown photographer

In 

Violet Georgina Milner, Viscountess Milner (1872–1958) by unknown photographer, c. 1921 courtesy Mrs R. Q. Edmonds / The King's School, Canterbury

Article

Milner [née Maxse], Violet Georgina, Viscountess Milner (1872–1958), imperial activist  

Hugh Cecil

Milner [née Maxse], Violet Georgina, Viscountess Milner (1872–1958), imperial activist, was born on 1 February 1872 at 38 Rutland Gate, Brompton, London, the youngest surviving child of Admiral Frederick Augustus Maxse (1833–1900), a Crimean War hero, landowner, and maverick politician, and his wife, ...

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Cover Parkin, Sir George Robert (1846–1922)

Parkin, Sir George Robert (1846–1922)  

Maker: Walter Stoneman

Sir George Robert Parkin (1846–1922) by Walter Stoneman, 1920 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Parkin, Sir George Robert (1846–1922), educationist and imperialist  

Terry Cook

Parkin, Sir George Robert (1846–1922), educationist and imperialist, was born on 8 February 1846 on a farm near Salisbury, New Brunswick, Canada, the youngest of the thirteen children of John Parkin, a Yorkshire farmer who emigrated in 1817, and his wife, Elizabeth McLean...

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Cover Rhodes, Cecil John (1853–1902)

Rhodes, Cecil John (1853–1902)  

Maker: Bassano

Cecil John Rhodes (1853–1902) by Bassano © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Rhodes, Cecil John (1853–1902), imperialist, colonial politician, and mining entrepreneur  

Shula Marks and Stanley Trapido

Rhodes, Cecil John (1853–1902), imperialist, colonial politician, and mining entrepreneur, was born at Bishop's Stortford in Hertfordshire on 5 July 1853. He was the fifth son of Francis William Rhodes (1807–1878), vicar of that parish from 1849 to 1876, and his second wife, ...