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Bainbridge, Christopher (1462/3–1514), ambassador, archbishop of York, and cardinal  

D. S. Chambers

Bainbridge, Christopher (1462/3–1514), ambassador, archbishop of York, and cardinal, was born at Hilton, near Appleby, Westmorland, the eldest of six children of Reginald Bainbridge and Isobel Langton; he owed much in his education and early advancement to his maternal uncle Thomas Langton, bishop of ...

Article

Beaton [Betoun], David (1494?–1546), cardinal and archbishop of St Andrews  

Margaret H. B. Sanderson

Beaton [Betoun], David (1494?–1546), cardinal and archbishop of St Andrews, was a younger son of John Beaton (d. 1532), of Balfour, Fife, and Elizabeth Monypenny (d. 1541), daughter of the laird of Pitmilly, Fife.

Beaton entered St Andrews University in 1508, transferred to that of ...

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Cover Beaufort, Henry (1375?–1447)
Henry Beaufort (1375?–1447) stone effigy © English Heritage. NMR

Article

Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal  

G. L. Harriss

Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403), daughter of the Hainaulter Sir Payn Roelt, who was governess to the duke's children [...

Article

Bourchier, Thomas (c. 1411–1486), cardinal and archbishop of Canterbury  

Linda Clark

Bourchier, Thomas (c. 1411–1486), cardinal and archbishop of Canterbury, was probably the second son of William Bourchier, count of Eu (c. 1374–1420), and Anne of Woodstock, daughter and heir of Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and granddaughter of Edward III. His mother's second marriage, to ...

Article

Castellesi [da Castello, da Corneto], Adriano (c. 1461–1521), cardinal and English agent in Rome  

T. F. Mayer

Castellesi [da Castello, da Corneto], Adriano (c. 1461–1521), cardinal and English agent in Rome, was born in Corneto (now Tarquinia) to 'a modest and almost servile family' (Paschini, 88). Castellesi began a career in the papal bureaucracy, and in 1488 was sent by ...

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Cover Kemp, John (1380/81–1454)
John Kemp (1380/8181–1454) seal [kneeling below] The British Library

Article

Kemp [Kempe], John (1380/81–1454), administrator, cardinal, and archbishop of York and of Canterbury  

R. G. Davies

Kemp [Kempe], John (1380/81–1454), administrator, cardinal, and archbishop of York and of Canterbury, was born at Olantigh by Wye, near Ashford, Kent, perhaps the second son of Thomas Kemp (d. 1428), sometime escheator of the county, and Beatrice, daughter of Sir Thomas Lewknor...

Article

Langham, Simon (d. 1376), administrator, archbishop of Canterbury, and cardinal  

W. J. Dohar

Langham, Simon (d. 1376), administrator, archbishop of Canterbury, and cardinal, was born at Langham in Rutland, the son of Thomas Langham—his spectacular career as an ecclesiastic and royal minister contrasts markedly with his modest beginnings. He became a monk of St Peter's, Westminster...

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Cover Wolsey, Thomas (1470/71–1530)

Wolsey, Thomas (1470/71–1530)  

Maker: unknown artist

In 

Thomas Wolsey (1470/7171–1530) by unknown artist, late 16th cent. [original, c.1520] © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Wolsey, Thomas (1470/71–1530), royal minister, archbishop of York, and cardinal  

Sybil M. Jack

Wolsey, Thomas (1470/71–1530), royal minister, archbishop of York, and cardinal, was the son of Robert Wulcy or Wolsey of Ipswich (d. 1496) and his wife, Joan Daundy (d. 1509). Wolsey's father ran a tavern in the parish of St Mary at the Elms, Ipswich...