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Acland [formerly Ackland], James (1799–1876), orator and political reformer  

Janette Martin

Acland [formerly Ackland], James (1799–1876), orator and political reformer, was born on 21 March 1799, in the city of London, where he was baptized at All Hallows on 21 April, the second son of Headley Ackland (or Acland) (1774–1846...

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Baynes, John (1758–1787), lawyer and political reformer  

John Cannon

Baynes, John (1758–1787), lawyer and political reformer, was born in April 1758 (probably on the 6th) at Middleham in Yorkshire, the son of William Baynes of Middleham, who later moved to Embsay Kirk in Craven. After attending school at Bradford under Mr Butler...

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Cover Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832)

Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832)  

Maker: Henry William Pickersgill

In 

Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) by Henry William Pickersgill, 1829 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832), philosopher, jurist, and reformer  

F. Rosen

Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832), philosopher, jurist, and reformer, was born on 4 February 1748 in Church Lane, Houndsditch, London, the eldest of the seven children of Jeremiah Bentham (1712–1792), attorney, and Alicia Woodward Whitehorne (d. 1759), the eldest daughter of Thomas Grove, a mercer of ...

Article

Biggs, John (1801–1871), hosier and political reformer  

R. H. Evans

Biggs, John (1801–1871), hosier and political reformer, was born at Leicester, first of the seven children of John Biggs (1774–1827), hosier, and his wife, Elizabeth, née Heggs (1780–1862), of Arnesby, Leicestershire. By the time his father died in 1827 the firm of John Biggs & Sons...

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See Biggs, John

Article

Bingham, Peregrine (1788–1864), legal writer and reformer  

Stephen Conway

Bingham, Peregrine (1788–1864), legal writer and reformer, was born on 15 April 1788 at Radclive, Buckinghamshire, where he was baptized on 19 April 1788, the eldest son of the Revd Peregrine Bingham (1754–1826) and his wife, Amy, née Bowles (1769–1859). He was educated at ...

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Cover Brown, James (1815–1881)

Brown, James (1815–1881)  

Maker: unknown

In 

James Brown (1815–1881), by unknown photographer

Manx National Heritage (Isle of Man)© Manx National Heritage /Bridgeman Images

Article

Brown, James (1815–1881), journalist and political reformer  

Martin Faragher

Brown, James (1815–1881), journalist and political reformer, was born in Liverpool on 2 August 1815. His father, James Brown, also known as Cato, was a black Nova Scotian, probably from the loyalist community which had settled there in consequence of the American War of Independence, and had served in the ...

Article

Cartwright, John (1740–1824), political reformer  

Rory T. Cornish

Cartwright, John (1740–1824), political reformer, was born on 17 September 1740 at Marnham, Nottinghamshire, the third son of William Cartwright (d. 1781) of Marnham, and Anne (d. 1787), daughter of George Cartwright of Ossington, also in Nottinghamshire. The family had risen to prominence in the sixteenth century owing to the fortuitous marriage of ...

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Cover Cartwright, John (1740–1824)

Cartwright, John (1740–1824)  

Maker: Adam Buck

In 

John Cartwright (1740–1824) by Adam Buck © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Digby, William (1849–1904), journalist and social campaigner  

F. H. Brown

revised by Chandrika Kaul

Digby, William (1849–1904), journalist and social campaigner, the third son of William Digby and his wife, Ann Drake, was born on 1 May 1849 at Walsoken, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire. Mostly self-taught, Digby became an apprentice in the office of the Isle of Ely and Wisbech Advertiser...

Article

Drennan, William (1754–1820), physician, poet, and political reformer  

I. R. McBride

Drennan, William (1754–1820), physician, poet, and political reformer, was born in Belfast on 23 May 1754, the child of the Revd Thomas Drennan (1696–1768) and his wife, Anne, née Lennox (1719–1806). Of Thomas Drennan, the minister of Belfast's First Presbyterian Congregation...

Article

Dyer, George (1755–1841), author and advocate of political reform  

Nicholas Roe

Dyer, George (1755–1841), author and advocate of political reform, was born on 15 March 1755 in east London, the son of John Dyer, a shipwright of Bridewell, London. As a child he attended a charity school, and on 1 July 1762 entered Christ's Hospital...

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Cover Dyer, George (1755–1841)

Dyer, George (1755–1841)  

Maker: Elizabeth Cristall

In 

George Dyer (1755–1841) by Elizabeth Cristall, pubd 1795 (after Joshua Cristall) © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Erskine, David Steuart, eleventh earl of Buchan (1742–1829), antiquary and political reformer  

Emma Vincent Macleod

Erskine, David Steuart, eleventh earl of Buchan (1742–1829), antiquary and political reformer, was born on 1 June 1742 in Edinburgh, the second son of Henry David Erskine, tenth earl (1710–1767), and his wife, Agnes (1717–1778), daughter of Sir James Steuart, bt, and the elder brother of ...

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Cover Erskine, David Steuart, eleventh earl of Buchan (1742–1829)

Erskine, David Steuart, eleventh earl of Buchan (1742–1829)  

Maker: John Finlayson

In 

David Steuart Erskine, eleventh earl of Buchan (1742–1829) by John Finlayson, pubd 1765 (after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1764) [in Van Dyck-style costume] © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Fildes, Mary (1789x1792–1876), reformer  

Robert Poole

Fildes, Mary (1789x1792–1876), reformer, was the daughter of John Pritchard of Stockport, bookkeeper, and his wife, Ann, née Price. Her birthplace was later given as Cork, although there are no known family connections to explain this. Her age in 1819 was given as twenty-seven, indicating a birth date of about ...

Article

Firth, Joseph Firth Bottomley [formerly Joseph Firth Bottomley] (1842–1889), politician and municipal reformer  

John Davis

Firth, Joseph Firth Bottomley [formerly Joseph Firth Bottomley] (1842–1889), politician and municipal reformer, was born Joseph Firth Bottomley at Dobroyd, Shepley, near Huddersfield, Yorkshire, on 21 February 1842, the eldest son of Joseph Bottomley, woollen manufacturer and merchant, and his wife, Ann, ...

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Cover Fitzgerald, William Robert, second duke of Leinster (1749–1804)

Fitzgerald, William Robert, second duke of Leinster (1749–1804)  

Maker: Sir Joshua Reynolds

In 

William Robert Fitzgerald, second duke of Leinster (1749–1804) by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1774 photograph by courtesy Sotheby's Picture Library, London