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Adams, William Grylls (1836–1915), scientist and university teacher, was born on 10 February 1836 at Lidcot, Laneast, Cornwall, the youngest son of the four sons and three daughters of Thomas Adams (1788–1859), small estate owner and farmer, and his wife, Tabitha Knill Grylls (1796–1866)...

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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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Andrews, William (1634/5–1712/13), astrologer and teacher of mathematics, was a well-known compiler of almanacs. He spent his adult life in Essex, at Ashdown (1656), Saffron Walden (by 1660), and nearby Radwinter (from 1668), but it is not known whether he married. He studied astrology from about 1652 and composed his first almanac, for 1655, at the age of nineteen; a new edition followed every year until his death. Though he included political prophecies, he avoided controversy by taking a firmly patriotic line, predicting disasters for ...

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Askham [Ascham], Anthony (c. 1517–1559), writer on astronomy and almanac maker, was born at Kirby Wiske, near Northallerton, Yorkshire, the third son of John Ascham (d. 1544) of Kirby Wiske, who was a yeoman farmer and steward to Lord Scrope of Bolton...

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Bauer, Ferdinand Lukas (1760–1826), botanical artist, was born on 20 January 1760 at Feldsberg, Austria, the son of Lukas Bauer or Baur (1706/7–1762), court painter to the prince of Liechtenstein, and his wife, Theresia, née Hirsch. Three sons—Joseph (1756–1831), Franz Andreas Bauer (1758–1840)...

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Blackwell [née Blachrie], Elizabeth (bap. 1707, d. 1758), botanical author and artist, was baptized on 22 June 1707 at St Nicholas, Aberdeen, the sixth daughter of a prosperous stocking merchant, William Blachrie (b. c.1669) and his wife, Isobel Fordyce. Elizabeth...

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Boate, Arnold (1606–1653), biblical scholar and writer on natural history, was born in Gorinchem in the Netherlands, a younger son of Godefroy de Boot (c.1570–1625), knight, and Christina van Loon (fl. 1600–1630). With his elder brother Gerard Boate he studied arts and medicine at the ...

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Bollard, Nicholas (fl. 1427), Dominican friar and writer on botany, was assigned by a provincial chapter after 1427 to Oxford convent as a friar ministerialis. He was the author of a work on arboriculture headed 'A tretee of Nicholas Bollard departid in 3 parties: of gendrying of trees; 2 of graffynge; the third forsooth of altracions'...

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Bourne, William (c. 1535–1582), writer on mathematics, was born at Gravesend, the son of John Bourne (d. 1560), who owned property in the town. His exact date of birth is not known. He was appointed a jurat, or town councillor, of Gravesend...

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Brough, John Cargill (1834–1872), science journalist, was born at Pontypool on 11 February 1834, the youngest son of Barnabas Brough (d. 1854), a brewer and wine merchant, and his wife, Frances, née Whiteside. His brothers, William Brough [see under Brough, Robert Barnabas...

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Buckminster [Buckmaster], Thomas (1531/2–1599), Church of England clergyman and almanac writer, was vicar of Twickenham from 1562 to 1563, then rector at All Hallows-the-Great, London, 1564–72, and rector at St Mary Woolnoth from 1572 until his death. He is sometimes supposed to have been a relative of ...

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See Ketton, Robert of

Article

Thompson Cooper

revised by Anita McConnell

Cheyne, James (c. 1545–1602), teacher of philosophy and mathematics, was born about 1545, the second son of John Cheyne (d. 1547), laird of Arnage in Aberdeenshire, and his wife, Janet (also known as Christian) Fraser, daughter of the laird of Durres. He was a student of grammar and philosophy at the ...

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Agnes Mary Clerke (1842–1907) by Hayman Selig Mendelssohn © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

H. P. Hollis

revised by M. T. Brück

Clerke, Agnes Mary (1842–1907), writer on astronomy, born at Skibbereen, co. Cork, on 10 February 1842, was the younger daughter of John William Clerke (1814–1890), and his wife, Catherine (1818–1897), daughter of Rickard Deasy of Clonakilty, co. Cork, and sister of Rickard Deasy...

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William Kingdon Clifford (1845–1879) by John Collier, 1878 Estate of the Artist / © Royal Society

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Clifford, William Kingdon (1845–1879), mathematician and philosopher of science, was born on 4 May 1845 at Exeter, the eldest son of William Clifford, a justice of the peace who died in 1878. His mother, whose maiden name was Kingdon, died not long after he was born. ...

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Clift, William (1775–1849), museum curator and scientific illustrator, was born at Burcombe, near Bodmin, Cornwall, on 14 February 1775, and was baptized (as William Cleft) in the Bodmin parish church on 12 April that year. He was the youngest of the seven children (...

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Costard, George (bap. 1710, d. 1782), writer on ancient astronomy, was baptized on 20 January 1710 at St Mary's Church, Shrewsbury, the son of the Revd Edward Coster, vicar of St Mary's, and his wife, Anne. Educated at Shrewsbury grammar school, in 1726 he matriculated at ...

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Crombie, Alistair Cameron (1915–1996), historian of science, the second son of William David Crombie (d. 1949) and Janet Wilmina, née Macdonald (d. 1975), was born on 4 November 1915 in Brisbane, Australia. His parents, who were of Scottish extraction, had established a farmstead at the remote ...