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Aigueblanche, Peter d' [Peter de Aqua Blanca] (d. 1268), bishop of Hereford and royal councillor  

Nicholas Vincent

Aigueblanche, Peter d' [Peter de Aqua Blanca] (d. 1268), bishop of Hereford and royal councillor, was descended from the family of Briançon, holders of the lordship of Aigueblanche (Savoie) in the Tarentaise or valley of the upper Isère, dependants of the counts of Savoy...

Article

Beauchamp, Richard, thirteenth earl of Warwick (1382–1439), magnate  

Christine Carpenter

Beauchamp, Richard, thirteenth earl of Warwick (1382–1439), magnate, was the eldest son of Thomas Beauchamp, twelfth earl of Warwick (1337x9–1401), and of Margaret (d. 1407), daughter of William, third Lord Ferrers of Groby.

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Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal  

G. L. Harriss

Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403), daughter of the Hainaulter Sir Payn Roelt, who was governess to the duke's children [...

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Burghersh, Bartholomew, the elder, second Lord Burghersh (d. 1355), magnate and administrator  

Anthony Verduyn

Burghersh, Bartholomew, the elder, second Lord Burghersh (d. 1355), magnate and administrator, was a younger son of Robert Burghersh (d. 1306), constable of Dover Castle and warden of the Cinque Ports, and Maud, sister of Bartholomew Badlesmere. Burghersh (after Burwash, Sussex) inherited the modest family estates in ...

Article

Despenser, Hugh, the younger, first Lord Despenser (d. 1326), administrator and royal favourite  

J. S. Hamilton

Despenser, Hugh, the younger, first Lord Despenser (d. 1326), administrator and royal favourite, was the son of Hugh Despenser the elder (1261–1326) and his wife, Isabel (d. 1306), widow of Payn Chaworth and daughter of William de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (...

Article

Eustace (II) [Eustace aux Gernons], count of Boulogne (d. c. 1087), magnate  

Heather J. Tanner

Eustace (II) [Eustace aux Gernons], count of Boulogne (d. c. 1087), magnate, was the eldest son of Eustace (I), count of Boulogne and Lens, and of Matilda, daughter of Lambert, count of Louvain. In 1036, and before his succession to the countship of ...

Article

Eustace fitz John (d. 1157), justice and baron  

T. F. Tout

revised by Paul Dalton

Eustace fitz John (d. 1157), justice and baron, was the son of John fitz Richard (b. before 1056), a minor tenant-in-chief in Essex and Norfolk, and an unknown mother. He succeeded Serlo de Burg, who is said (perhaps wrongly) to have been his uncle and to have founded the castle of ...

Article

Fitzwalter, Robert (d. 1235), magnate and rebel  

Matthew Strickland

Fitzwalter, Robert (d. 1235), magnate and rebel, lord of Dunmow, Essex and Baynard's Castle, London, was the son of Walter fitz Robert and Matilda, daughter of Henry II's justiciar Richard de Lucy. Henry I had granted the honours of Dunmow and Baynard's Castle...

Article

Henry of Lancaster [Henry of Grosmont], first duke of Lancaster (c. 1310–1361), soldier and diplomat  

W. M. Ormrod

Henry of Lancaster [Henry of Grosmont], first duke of Lancaster (c. 1310–1361), soldier and diplomat, was the son of Henry, third earl of Lancaster (c. 1280–1345), and Maud Chaworth (d. 1317×22).

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Longespée, Sir William (c. 1209–1250), magnate  

Simon Lloyd

Longespée, Sir William (c. 1209–1250), magnate, was the eldest son and heir of Ela, countess of Salisbury (b. in or after 1190, d. 1261), in whom the earldom was vested, and William (I) Longespée (b. in or before 1167, d. 1226). He had three brothers, of whom the youngest was ...

Article

Longespée [Lungespée], William, third earl of Salisbury (b. in or before 1167, d. 1226), magnate  

Matthew Strickland

Longespée [Lungespée], William, third earl of Salisbury (b. in or before 1167, d. 1226), magnate, was the natural son of Henry II and Ida de Tosny, probably the daughter of Roger (III) de Tosny, a powerful Anglo-Norman lord, and his wife, also Ida...

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Montfort, Simon de, eighth earl of Leicester (c. 1208–1265), magnate and political reformer  

J. R. Maddicott

Montfort, Simon de, eighth earl of Leicester (c. 1208–1265), magnate and political reformer, was the third son of Simon de Montfort (c.1170–1218), lord of Montfort l'Amaury in the Île-de-France, and of Alice (d. 1221), daughter of Bouchard de Montmorency.

Article

Mowbray, Thomas, first duke of Norfolk (1366–1399), magnate  

C. Given-Wilson

Mowbray, Thomas, first duke of Norfolk (1366–1399), magnate, was the second son of John (III) Mowbray, fourth Lord Mowbray (1340–1368), and Elizabeth Seagrave (1338–1364×8), granddaughter of Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk. He was born in 1366, although the usually accepted date, 22 March 1366, seems too early, given that his brother ...

Article

Neville, Ralph, first earl of Westmorland (c. 1364–1425), magnate  

Anthony Tuck

Neville, Ralph, first earl of Westmorland (c. 1364–1425), magnate, was the eldest son of John Neville, fifth Baron Neville (c. 1330–1388), and Maud (d. 1378/9), daughter of Henry, second Lord Percy of Alnwick.

Article

Neville, Richard, sixteenth earl of Warwick and sixth earl of Salisbury [called the Kingmaker] (1428–1471), magnate  

A. J. Pollard

Neville, Richard, sixteenth earl of Warwick and sixth earl of Salisbury [called the Kingmaker] (1428–1471), magnate, was born on 22 November 1428, the eldest son of Richard Neville, fifth earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), and Alice (c.1406–1462), daughter of Thomas Montagu, ...

Article

Odo, earl of Kent (d. 1097), bishop of Bayeux and magnate  

David Bates

Odo, earl of Kent (d. 1097), bishop of Bayeux and magnate, was the son of Herluin de Conteville (d. c.1066), a Norman magnate of vicomte status who held lands around Grestain to the south of the Seine estuary, and of Herleva (...

Article

Percy, Henry, first earl of Northumberland (1341–1408), magnate and rebel  

J. M. W. Bean

Percy, Henry, first earl of Northumberland (1341–1408), magnate and rebel, was the elder son of Henry Percy, third Lord Percy of Alnwick (c. 1321–1368), and his first wife, Mary (d. 1362), the daughter of Henry, third earl of Lancaster (c. 1280–1345).

Article

Quincy, Saer de, earl of Winchester (d. 1219), magnate  

Richard D. Oram

Quincy, Saer de, earl of Winchester (d. 1219), magnate, was the son of Robert de Quincy (d. 1197) and his wife, Orabile, daughter of Ness, son of William, lord of Leuchars in Fife. About 1190 he married Margaret (d. 1235), daughter of ...

Article

Richard of York, third duke of York (1411–1460), magnate and claimant to the English throne  

John Watts

Richard of York, third duke of York (1411–1460), magnate and claimant to the English throne, was the only son of Richard of Conisbrough, fourth earl of Cambridge (1385–1415), and Anne Mortimer (b. after 1388, d. before 1414), daughter of Roger (VII) Mortimer, ...

Article

Somerset [formerly Beaufort], Charles, first earl of Worcester (c. 1460–1526), courtier and magnate  

Jonathan Hughes

Somerset [formerly Beaufort], Charles, first earl of Worcester (c. 1460–1526), courtier and magnate, was the illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, second duke of Somerset (1436–1464), and his mistress Joan Hill. His mother was still alive in 1493, when Henry VII gave her an annuity. He was thus a cousin both of ...