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Aigueblanche, Peter d' [Peter de Aqua Blanca] (d. 1268), bishop of Hereford and royal councillor  

Nicholas Vincent

Aigueblanche, Peter d' [Peter de Aqua Blanca] (d. 1268), bishop of Hereford and royal councillor, was descended from the family of Briançon, holders of the lordship of Aigueblanche (Savoie) in the Tarentaise or valley of the upper Isère, dependants of the counts of Savoy...

Article

Blount, Mountjoy, first earl of Newport (c. 1597–1666), courtier and politician  

David L. Smith

Blount, Mountjoy, first earl of Newport (c. 1597–1666), courtier and politician, was the eldest of three illegitimate sons of Charles Blount, earl of Devonshire (1563–1606), and Lady Penelope Rich (1563–1607), daughter of Walter Devereux, first earl of Essex; his parents were eventually to marry, contrary to canon law, in 1605. He was the half-brother of ...

Article

Bothmer, Hans Kaspar [Johann] von, Count Bothmer in the nobility of the Holy Roman empire (1656–1732), courtier and diplomat  

Andrew C. Thompson

Bothmer, Hans Kaspar [Johann] von, Count Bothmer in the nobility of the Holy Roman empire (1656–1732), courtier and diplomat, was born on 10 April 1656 ns in Lauenbrück, in the Celle portion of the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, northern Germany, the eldest son of ...

Article

Brandon, Charles, first duke of Suffolk (c. 1484–1545), magnate, courtier, and soldier  

S. J. Gunn

Brandon, Charles, first duke of Suffolk (c. 1484–1545), magnate, courtier, and soldier, was the second but only surviving son of Sir William Brandon (d. 1485) and his wife, Elizabeth Bruyn (d. 1494) of South Ockendon. The manner of Sir William's death, killed at ...

Article

Brett, Reginald Baliol, second Viscount Esher (1852–1930), courtier  

William M. Kuhn

Brett, Reginald Baliol, second Viscount Esher (1852–1930), courtier, was born on 30 June 1852 at 19 Prince's Terrace, Kensington, London, the eldest of three children of William Baliol Brett, first Viscount Esher (1815–1899), barrister and later master of the rolls, and his wife, ...

Article

Calvert, George, first Baron Baltimore (1579/80–1632), courtier and colonist in America  

John D. Krugler

Calvert, George, first Baron Baltimore (1579/80–1632), courtier and colonist in America, was born in Kiplin in Catterick parish, Yorkshire, the son of Leonard Calvert (b. c.1550) and Alica Crosland (d. early 1580s). He was descended from a Roman Catholic family that had been in ...

Article

Canning [née Stuart], Charlotte Elizabeth, Countess Canning (1817–1861), courtier and vicereine of India  

K. D. Reynolds

Canning [née Stuart], Charlotte Elizabeth, Countess Canning (1817–1861), courtier and vicereine of India, was born at the British embassy in Paris on 31 March 1817, the elder of the two daughters of Sir Charles Stuart, later Baron Stuart de Rothesay (1779–1845), diplomatist, and his wife, ...

Article

Carew, Sir Nicholas (b. in or before 1496, d. 1539), diplomat and courtier  

Stanford Lehmberg

Carew, Sir Nicholas (b. in or before 1496, d. 1539), diplomat and courtier, was the eldest son of Sir Richard Carew (d. 1520) of Beddington, Surrey, and Maline, daughter of Robert Oxenbridge (d. 1488) of Ford Place in Brede, Sussex. The main line of his ancient family had settled at ...

Article

Carey, Henry, first Baron Hunsdon (1526–1596), courtier and administrator  

Wallace T. MacCaffrey

Carey, Henry, first Baron Hunsdon (1526–1596), courtier and administrator, was born on 4 March 1526, the only son of William Carey (c. 1496–1528), courtier, of Aldenham, Hertfordshire, and his wife, Mary [see Stafford, Mary (c. 1499-1543)], royal mistress, daughter of Thomas Boleyn, ...

Article

Catesby, William (b. in or before 1446, d. 1485), royal councillor and speaker of the House of Commons  

Rosemary Horrox

Catesby, William (b. in or before 1446, d. 1485), royal councillor and speaker of the House of Commons, was the son of Sir William Catesby (d. 1478/9) of Ashby St Ledgers [see under Catesby family] and his first wife, Philippa Bishopestone...

Article

Cecil, Robert, first earl of Salisbury (1563–1612), politician and courtier  

Pauline Croft

Cecil, Robert, first earl of Salisbury (1563–1612), politician and courtier, was born on 1 June 1563 at Cecil House, Strand, Westminster, the second surviving child and only son of William Cecil, first Baron Burghley (1520/21–1598), statesman, then secretary of state and from 1572 lord treasurer, and his second wife, ...

Article

Cecil, Thomas, first earl of Exeter (1542–1623), courtier and soldier  

Richard Milward

Cecil, Thomas, first earl of Exeter (1542–1623), courtier and soldier, was born in Cambridge on 5 May 1542, the eldest son of William Cecil, first Baron Burghley (1520/21–1598), and his first wife, Mary (c.1520–1544), sister of John Cheke. His mother died when he was less than two years old and he never seems to have aroused any affection in his puritanical stepmother, ...

Article

Cecil, William, first Baron Burghley (1520/21–1598), royal minister  

Wallace T. MacCaffrey

Cecil, William, first Baron Burghley (1520/21–1598), royal minister, son of Richard Cecil (d. 1553) and Jane, daughter of William Heckington of Bourne, Lincolnshire, and grandson of David Cecil, was born on 18 September 1520 or 1521. David Cecil, a member of a minor gentry family on the Welsh border, joined ...

Article

Churchill [née Jenyns], Sarah, duchess of Marlborough (1660–1744), politician and courtier  

James Falkner

Churchill [née Jenyns], Sarah, duchess of Marlborough (1660–1744), politician and courtier, was born on 5 June 1660, probably at Holywell, St Albans, Hertfordshire, the fourth and youngest daughter of Richard Jenyns (c.1618–1668), whose name is often spelt Jennings by later writers, and his wife, ...

Article

Cromwell, Thomas, earl of Essex (b. in or before 1485, d. 1540), royal minister  

Howard Leithead

Cromwell, Thomas, earl of Essex (b. in or before 1485, d. 1540), royal minister, was the son of Walter Cromwell of Putney, Surrey, who made his name there as a blacksmith, fuller, and cloth merchant, as well as the owner of both a hostelry and a brewery. All that is known of his mother is that she was the aunt of ...

Article

Despenser, Hugh, the younger, first Lord Despenser (d. 1326), administrator and royal favourite  

J. S. Hamilton

Despenser, Hugh, the younger, first Lord Despenser (d. 1326), administrator and royal favourite, was the son of Hugh Despenser the elder (1261–1326) and his wife, Isabel (d. 1306), widow of Payn Chaworth and daughter of William de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (...

Article

Douglas, Charles, third duke of Queensberry and second duke of Dover (1698–1778), courtier and politician  

William C. Lowe

Douglas, Charles, third duke of Queensberry and second duke of Dover (1698–1778), courtier and politician, the son of James Douglas, second duke of Queensberry and first duke of Dover (1662–1711), and his wife, Mary Boyle (1670/71–1709), daughter of Charles, Lord Clifford, was born at ...

Article

Dudley, Robert, earl of Leicester (1532/3–1588), courtier and magnate  

Simon Adams

Dudley, Robert, earl of Leicester (1532/3–1588), courtier and magnate, was born on 24 June 1532 or 1533, the fifth son of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland (1504–1553), royal minister, and his wife, Jane Dudley (1508/9–1555) [see under Dudley, John, duke of Northumberland (1504–1553)...

Article

Erskine, John, eighteenth or second earl of Mar (c. 1562–1634), courtier and politician  

Julian Goodare

Erskine, John, eighteenth or second earl of Mar (c. 1562–1634), courtier and politician, was the eldest son of John Erskine, seventeenth or first earl of Mar (d. 1572), and his wife, Annabella Murray (d. 1603). His extensive estates were mainly in Stirlingshire...

Article

Fremantle, Sir William Henry (1766–1850), politician and courtier  

G. B. Smith

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Fremantle, Sir William Henry (1766–1850), politician and courtier, the youngest son of John Fremantle (d. 1784) of Aston Abbots, Buckinghamshire, and his wife, Frances, daughter of John Edwards of Bristol, was born on 28 December 1766. The naval officer Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle...