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Benenson, Peter James Henry (1921–2005), barrister and human rights campaigner, was born on 31 July 1921 at 6 Albert Court, Knightsbridge, London, the only child of Lieutenant-Colonel Harold Josiah Solomon (1885–1930), army officer, and his wife, Flora (1895–1984), daughter of the Jewish Russian banker ...

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F. D. Mackinnon

revised by P. W. J. Bartrip

Cohen, Arthur (1829–1914), lawyer, was born in Wyndham Place, Bryanston Square, London, on 18 November 1829, the youngest son of Benjamin Cohen (1789–1867), a prosperous bill broker. His grandfather, Levy Barent Cohen (1740–1808), moved to London from Holland about 1770. Through his mother, ...

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Cowen, Sir Zelman (1919–2011), legal scholar, governor-general of Australia, and college head, was born Zelman Cohen on 7 October 1919 in St Kilda, Melbourne, the only son of Bernard Cohen, later Cowen (1892–1975), businessman, and his wife Sara, née Granat (1893–1989). In March 1922 his father changed his surname by deed poll. Both families were part of the mass exodus of Jews from tsarist ...

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Freund, Sir Otto Kahn- (1900–1979), jurist, was born in Frankfurt am Main on 17 November 1900, the only child of Richard Kahn-Freund, a merchant, and his wife, Carrie Freund. He grew up in a cultured Jewish household and though in religious matters he was agnostic, he himself said that the most important fact in his life had been the awareness of being a Jew. To this he attributed the passion for justice and the concern for the disadvantaged which lay at the root both of his interest in labour law and of his socialist convictions....

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Goodhart, Arthur Lehman (1891–1978), jurist, was born on 1 March 1891 in New York city, the younger son and youngest of three children of Philip Julius Goodhart, a well-known New York stockbroker, and his wife, Harriet Lehman, a strong-minded woman, the elder sister of ...

Article

Goodman, Arnold Abraham, Baron Goodman (1913–1995), solicitor and public servant, was born on 21 August 1913 at 26 Bodney Road, Hackney, London, the younger son of Joseph Goodman (1879/1880–1940), master draper, and his wife, Bertha (1887–1959), daughter of Joseph Mauerberger, businessman. His name was given on his birth certificate as ...

Article

Heilbron, Dame Rose (1914–2005), barrister and judge, was born on 19 August 1914 at 27 St James Road, Abercromby, Liverpool, the younger daughter of Max Heilbron and his wife, Nellie, née Summers. She was originally named Rosie, but this was later changed to ...

Article

Zelman Cowen

revised by Peter Balmford

Isaacs, Sir Isaac Alfred (1855–1948), judge and politician, was born at Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, on 6 August 1855, the eldest of the three children of Alfred Isaacs (d. 1904), a Polish-born tailor, of Auburn, Victoria, and his wife, Rebecca (d. 1912)...

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Isaacs, Rufus Daniel, first marquess of Reading (1860–1935), politician and judge, was born on 10 October 1860 at 3 Bury Street, in the parish of St Mary Axe, London, the second son and fourth of the nine children of Joseph Michael Isaacs (1832–1908)...

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Jessel, Sir George (1824–1883), judge, was born in Savile Row, London, on 13 February 1824, the youngest of the four surviving children of Zadok Aaron Jessel, a wealthy London merchant, and his wife, Mary, daughter of Henry Harris of Coventry. He was educated at ...

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Lauterpacht, Sir Hersch (1897–1960), international lawyer, was born on 16 August 1897 at Zolkiew, a village near Lemberg (Lwów) in eastern Galicia, Poland, the younger son in a family of three children of Aaron Lauterpacht, a timber merchant of fluctuating fortune, and his wife, ...

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Levi, Leone (1821–1888), jurist, political economist, and statistician, was born on 6 June 1821 in Ancona, later part of the kingdom of Italy. He came from a middle-class Jewish family. His father, Isaac, and his elder brother were both merchants. Leone received a practical, commercial education and began working for his brother at the age of fifteen. He travelled to ...

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Lopez [Lopes], Roderigo [Ruy, Roger] (c. 1517–1594), physician and alleged conspirator, was born in Portugal, where his father, António Lopes, was physician to João III. A New Christian, or son of a Jew baptized by force in 1497, he studied at the University of Coimbra...

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Lyons, (Isidore) Jack (1916–2008), businessman, philanthropist, and convicted fraudster, was born in Leeds on 1 February 1916, the fifth of six children of Samuel Henry Lyons (1883/4–1959), businessman, and his wife, Sophie, née Niman (1885–1971). His immediate elder brother, Bernard Lyons (1913–2008...

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Maxwell, (Ian) Robert (1923–1991), publisher and swindler, was born on 10 June 1923 in Synagogue Street, Slatinske Doly (Szlatina), a village in Czechoslovakia on a disputed frontier with Romania. He was one of seven children of Mehel Hoch (1887–1942?), agricultural labourer, and Chanca (...

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Mishcon, Victor, Baron Mishcon (1915–2006), solicitor and politician, was born on 14 August 1915 at 1 Helix Road, Brixton, London, the son of Rabbi Arnold Mishcon (1879/80–1935), who had emigrated from Russia, and his west-country wife, Queenie, née Orler (1878/9–1949), who was a teacher at an elementary school. His father had become a rabbi at the age of twenty-two, and four years later became rabbi at the ...

Article

Rachman, Peter [Perec] (1920?–1962), racketeer, was born at Lwów, Poland, son of David Rachman, a dental surgeon, who, together with his wife, vanished in the holocaust. After the Nazi invasion of Poland, Rachman was forced onto a road-building chain-gang and later captured by Russians, who starved him. He arrived in ...

Article

Robson, William Alexander (1895–1980), jurist and reformer, was born on 14 July 1895 at Finchley, Middlesex, the first son and youngest of three children of Jack Robson, born Jacob Alexander Isaacs, a dealer in pearls in Hatton Garden, and his wife, Esther Louisa Afriat...

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Salmon, Cyril Barnet, Baron Salmon (1903–1991), judge, was born Barnett Cyril Salmon on 28 December 1903 at 232 Finchley Road, Hampstead, London, the son of Montagu Salmon, tobacco merchant, and his wife, Marian Nina Trevor, née Abrahams. His father's family co-owned J. Lyons & Co. Ltd...

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Schapiro, Leonard Bertram (1908–1983), historian and barrister, was born in Glasgow on 22 April 1908, the elder son and second of three children of Max Schapiro and his wife, Leah Levine. His father, educated at the universities of Riga and Glasgow, was the son of a wealthy sawmill owner at ...