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Ackermann, Rudolph (1764–1834), publisher, was born on 20 April 1764 at Stollberg, near Leipzig, in Saxony, the sixth child of Barthel Ackermann (1723–1798), a saddler, and his wife, Justina Scharschmidt (1732–1808). He was educated at the Latin school at Stollberg and then at ...

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Adelaide [Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen] (1792–1849), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, consort of William IV, was the eldest child of George Frederick Charles, duke of Saxe-Meiningen (d. 1803), and Louisa Eleanora (d. 1837), daughter of Christian Albert, ...

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Albert [Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha] (1819–1861), prince consort, consort of Queen Victoria, was born on 26 August 1819 at the ducal summer residence of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, the Rosenau, on the southern edge of the forest of Thuringen, about 4 miles...

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Alexandra [Princess Alexandra of Denmark] (1844–1925), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the British dominions beyond the seas, and empress of India, consort of Edward VII, was born at the Gule or Yellow Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 1 December 1844 and was given the names ...

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Alice, Princess [married name Princess Louis of Hesse] (1843–1878), grand duchess of Hesse, consort of Louis IV, and daughter of Queen Victoria, was born Alice Maud Mary at Buckingham Palace in the early morning of 25 April 1843, the third child and second daughter of ...

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Amelia [Emily], Princess (1711–1786), daughter of George II, was born on 30 May/10 June 1711 at the palace of Herrenhausen in Hanover, Germany, the summer residence of her grandfather, Georg Ludwig, elector of Hanover (from 1714 King George I of Great Britain), the second daughter of ...

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Anne [Anna, Anne of Denmark] (1574–1619), queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, consort of James VI and I, was born on 12 December 1574 at Skanderborg Castle in Jutland, Denmark. She was the second daughter of Frederick II (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway...

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Anne, princess royal (1709–1759), princess of Orange, consort of William IV, was born on 2 November 1709 at the Leine palace, Hanover, the second child and eldest daughter of George Augustus, electoral prince of Hanover, later George II of Great Britain (1683–1760), and his wife, ...

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Augusta [Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha], princess of Wales (1719–1772), consort of Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales, was born in Gotha, capital of the German principality of Saxe-Gotha, in Thuringia, on 19 November 1719 os, the fourth (but second surviving) daughter and thirteenth child of ...

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Bach, Johann Christian (1735–1782), composer, was born on 5 September 1735 in Leipzig, Saxony, the sixth and youngest son and the eleventh of the thirteen children of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750), composer, and his second wife, Anna Magdalena (1701–1760), daughter of Johann Caspar Wilcke...

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C. W. Boyd

revised by Ian Phimister

Beit, Alfred (1853–1906), mining magnate and philanthropist, born at Hamburg on 15 February 1853, was the eldest son of Siegfried and Laura Beit. His father was a merchant belonging to a well-known Hamburg family descended from Portuguese Jews, and Lutheran by religion. Beit...

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Beit, Sir Otto John, first baronet (1865–1930), financier, philanthropist, and art connoisseur, was born on 7 December 1865 in Hamburg, Germany, twelve years after his brother Alfred Beit. He was the third son of Siegfried Beit (1818–1881), silk merchant, and his wife, Laura Caroline Hahn (...

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Bothmer, Hans Kaspar [Johann] von, Count Bothmer in the nobility of the Holy Roman empire (1656–1732), courtier and diplomat, was born on 10 April 1656 ns in Lauenbrück, in the Celle portion of the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, northern Germany, the eldest son of ...

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Bredsdorff, Elias Lunn (1912–2002), Danish scholar, was born on 15 January 1912 at Roskilde folk high school, Denmark, the youngest of six sons of Thomas Vilhelm Birkedal Bredsdorff (1868–1922) and his wife, Margrethe, née Lunn (1871–1958). His father was the headmaster of the school, a further education college run on liberal Christian principles, and his mother a teacher. Originally taught at home, from the age of twelve he attended ...

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Buchinger, Matthias [Matthew] (1674–1739), artist, was born on 2 June 1674 at Ansbach, near Nuremberg; details of his parents are unknown. He was born without hands, feet, lower legs, or thighs and in his life never grew taller than 29 inches. Although such symptoms might today be diagnosed as phocomelia, his impairments were attributed at the time to a fright suffered by his mother during pregnancy. He was the youngest of nine children and, according to a biography published in the ...

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Buchman, Frank Nathan Daniel (1878–1961), evangelist, was born on 4 June 1878 in Pennsburg, Pennsylvania, the second of two children of Franklin Buchman (1840–1921), merchant and hotelier, and his wife, Sarah Anna Greenwalt (d. 1925). Both parents were of Swiss German extraction, their ancestors having emigrated to ...

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Caroline [Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach] (1683–1737), queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and electress of Hanover, consort of George II, was born on 1 March 1683 in the palace of Ansbach, south Germany. She was the elder of the two children of Johann Friedrich, ...

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Caroline [Princess Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel] (1768–1821), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, consort of George IV, was born on 17 May 1768 at Brunswick, the second daughter of Karl II, duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and Princess Augusta, sister of George III...

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Charlotte [Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz] (1744–1818), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and queen of Hanover, consort of George III, was born on 19 May 1744 at the palace, Mirow, in the duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Germany, the second daughter of ...

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Dahl, Michael (1659–1743), portrait painter, was born on 29 September 1659 in Stockholm, Sweden. Nothing of his father is known. His mother, Catarina, had a lengthy widowhood in difficult circumstances, as is recorded in a letter from Dahl, written in Rome and dated 6 October 1687, in which he also refers to a sister. ...