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Altschul, Annie Therese (1919–2001), psychiatric nurse and teacher, was born into a middle-class Jewish family in Vienna on 18 February 1919, the daughter of Ludwig Altschul and his wife Marie. Despite the early death of her father, she enjoyed an idyllic childhood, which was enriched by her close family and the access she had to a diverse range of cultural activities. Her mother encouraged interest in the arts, sciences, and humanities, but ultimately it was mathematics that she chose for her undergraduate studies at the ...

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Balint, Michael Maurice [formerly Mihaly Bergsmann] (1896–1970), psychoanalyst, was born on 3 December 1896 in Baross Street, Jozsefvaros, a residential section of Budapest, Hungary. He was the first of the two children of Ignac Bergsmann, a general medical practitioner. Both his parents were descendants of German Jewish families who had been fully assimilated Hungarians for only two or three generations. He later changed his name to ...

Article

Brodum, William (fl. 1767–1824), quack, claimed to have been born in Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Germany, the son of Abraham and Caroline Brodum. This was thrown into doubt in 1805 by an article in the Medical and Physical Journal which stated that his real name was, in fact, ...

Article

Bülbring, Edith (1903–1990), pharmacologist and physiologist, was born on 27 December 1903 in Bonn, Germany, the youngest of four children and third daughter of Karl Daniel Bülbring, professor of English at Bonn University, and his wife, Hortense Leonore Kann, a Dutch woman, daughter of a Jewish banker's family in ...

Article

Cohen, Henry, Baron Cohen of Birkenhead (1900–1977), physician, was born in Birkenhead on 21 February 1900, the youngest of the five children (four boys and one girl) of Isaac Cohen (d. 1939), a draper and a considerable Jewish scholar, of Liverpool, and his wife, ...

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Guttmann, Sir Ludwig (1899–1980), neurosurgeon, was born on 3 July 1899 in Tost, Upper Silesia, into a Jewish family, the first born, and the only son, among the four children of Bernhard Guttmann, an innkeeper and distiller, and his wife, Dorothea, daughter of ...

Article

C. H. Andrewes

revised by Mark Jackson

Isaacs, Alick (1921–1967), virologist, was born in Glasgow on 17 July 1921, the eldest in the family of three sons and one daughter of Louis Isaacs, shopkeeper, of Glasgow, and his wife, Rosine, daughter of Jacob Lion, leather merchant, of London. His brother ...

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Katz, Sir Bernard (1911–2003), experimental physiologist, was born on 26 March 1911 in Leipzig, Germany, the only child of Max N. Katz, fur trader, and his wife, Eugenie, née Rabinowitz. Until about 1958 he used the spelling Bernhard.

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Klein [née Reizes], Melanie (1882–1960), psychoanalyst, was born on 30 March 1882 at Tiefer Gruben 8, Vienna, the daughter of Moritz Reizes (1828–1900), doctor and dentist, and a Jewish scholar from a rigidly Orthodox Polish family, and Libussa Deutsch (1852–1914), the granddaughter of a liberal rabbi. The youngest of four children, she idolized an older sister who died when ...

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Lopez [Lopes], Roderigo [Ruy, Roger] (c. 1517–1594), physician and alleged conspirator, was born in Portugal, where his father, António Lopes, was physician to João III. A New Christian, or son of a Jew baptized by force in 1497, he studied at the University of Coimbra...

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Morris, Jeremiah Noah [Jerry] (1910–2009), physician and epidemiologist, was born at 3 Belgrave Street, West Derby, Liverpool, on 6 May 1910, the eldest of three sons of Nathan Morris, Hebrew scholar, and his wife, Chaia (Annie), née Moselowsky. His father was a refugee from pogroms in ...

Article

F. C. Bartlett

revised by Hugh Series

Myers, Charles Samuel (1873–1946), psychologist, was born in London on 13 March 1873, the eldest son of Wolf Myers, merchant, and his wife, Esther Eugenie Moses. His father's family was principally interested in commerce. From his mother and her family came powerful social, musical, and philosophical influences. As a boy at the ...

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Rotblat, Sir Joseph (1908–2005), scientist and peace activist, was born Jósef Rotblat on 4 November 1908 in Warsaw, the eldest of five surviving children (two others died in infancy) of Zygmunt, otherwise Zelman, Rotblat, the owner of a haulage company specializing in the paper trade, and his wife, ...

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Roth, Sir Martin (1917–2006), psychiatrist, was born on 6 November 1917 in Budapest, in the dying days of the Austro-Hungarian empire, the second of the three children of Samuel Simon Roth, cantor in a synagogue, and his wife, Regina. In 1925 the family moved to ...

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Sarmento, Jacob de Castro [formerly Henrique de Castro] (1692?–1762), physician and scientific writer, was born at Bragança, Portugal, as Henrique, the third son of Francisco de Castro de Almeida (b. 1651/2), tobacco merchant (estanqueiro), and his second wife, ...

Article

W. P. Courtney

revised by Edgar Samuel

Schomberg, Isaac (1714–1780), physician, eldest son of Meyer Löw Schomberg (1690–1761), and twin brother of Ralph or Raphael Schomberg, was born at Schweinsberg, Germany, on 14 August 1714. He was a pupil at Merchant Taylors' School, London, from 1726 to 1731, and subsequently received a doctorate in medicine from the ...

Article

F. de H. Hall

revised by Neil Weir

Semon, Sir Felix (1849–1921), laryngologist, was born on 8 December 1849 at Danzig, Germany, the elder son of Simon Joseph Semon, stockbroker, of Berlin, and his wife, Henrietta, née Aschenheim. His medical studies began at Heidelberg, but were interrupted by the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), in which he served as a volunteer in the ...

Article

E. A. Underwood

revised by Anita McConnell

Singer, Charles Joseph (1876–1960), historian of medicine and science, was born on 2 November 1876 at 22 Brunswick Square, Camberwell, London, the fifth child and fourth son of Simeon Singer (1848–1906), headmaster of Jews' College School and minister of Borough New Synagogue, and his wife, ...

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Weiner, Joseph Sidney (1915–1982), human biologist and environmental physiologist, was born on 29 June 1915 at Nourse Mines in Johannesburg, Transvaal, South Africa, the second of the seven children of Robert Weiner (1885–1966), general dealer, and his wife Fanny (Chana), née Simon (1896–1978)...