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Cadbury, Dame Geraldine Southall (1865–1941), social and penal reformer, was born Geraldine Southall at 5 Highfield Road, Edgbaston, on 29 June 1865, the daughter of Alfred Southall (1838–1931), chemist, and his wife, Anna Strangman, née Grubb (1841–1912). She inherited a propensity for social activism from her Quaker parents; her father was a temperance worker who taught a working men's adult school class, while her Irish mother was a supporter of women's suffrage. She was educated at ...

Article

Fry [née Gurney], Elizabeth (1780–1845), penal reformer and philanthropist, was born on 21 May 1780 at Magdalen Street, Norwich, the fourth of twelve children, seven daughters and five sons, of John Gurney (1749–1809), a merchant and banker, and Catherine Bell (1754–1792). Her parents were both descendants of old Quaker families, ...

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G. Le G. Norgate

revised by Stephen M. Lee

Neild, James (1744–1814), penal reformer and philanthropist, was born on 24 May 1744 at Knutsford, Cheshire. His father's death left his mother to support Neild and his four siblings by continuing her business as a linen draper. After a very brief education Neild...

Article

Paul, Sir George Onesiphorus, second baronet (1746–1820), prison reformer and philanthropist, was born on 9 February 1746 at Woodchester, Gloucestershire, the son of Sir Onesiphorus Paul, first baronet (bap. 1706, d. 1774), a successful woollen manufacturer, and his first wife, Jane (c...