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Abu Bakar [Abu Bakar ibni al-Marhum Dato Temenggong Sri Maharaja Tun Ibrahim] (1833–1895), sultan of Johore, was born in Teluk Belanga, Singapore, most probably on 3 February 1833, the eldest son of Daing Ibrahim (1810–1862) and his first wife, Encik Ngah (also known as Tengku Andak)...

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Ayub Khan, Mohammad (1907–1974), president of Pakistan, was born on 14 May 1907 at Rehana, in the Hazara district of the North-West Frontier Province of undivided British India. He was the fifth child of Mir Dad Khan, a retired Indian army junior officer. The family were comfortably off, but not wealthy members of the ...

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Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali (1928–1979), president and later prime minister of Pakistan, was born on 5 January 1928 at Larkana, a medium-sized town on the Indus River in Sind, then part of British India. His father, Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto (1888–1957), was one of Sind's...

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Jinnah, Mohamed Ali (1876–1948), creator of Pakistan, was born on 25 December 1876 at Wazir Mansions, Newnham Road, Karachi, the first of the seven children of Jinnahbhai Poonja (c.1857–c.1901), a successful merchant, and his wife, Mithibai (d. c...

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Khan, Abdul Ghaffar (1890–1988), Pakhtun nationalist, was born in the village of Utmanzai in the Peshawar district of the North-West Frontier Province. He was the fourth child of Khan Behram Khan, an influential Muhammadzai landlord. Following admission to a mosque school at the age of five, he was educated at the ...

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Liaqat Ali Khan (1895–1951), prime minister of Pakistan, was born on 1 October 1895 at Karnal in the Punjab, the second son of Rukn ud-Daula, Shamsher Jang, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan, nawab of Karnal. This wealthy landowning family was of Iranian descent, and had been settled for some generations in the ...

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Mujibur Rahman, Sheikh (1920–1975), president of Bangladesh, was born in Tungipara, Faridpur district, Bengal, on 17 March 1920, the first of six children of Sheikh Lutfur Rahman, a middle-class landowner, and Sahera Begum. He had one brother and four sisters. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman...

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Nazimuddin, Khwaja (1894–1964), chief minister of Bengal and governor-general and prime minister of Pakistan, was born on 19 July 1894 in Dacca, Bengal, the son of Khwaja Nazimuddin, landowner, and his wife, Nawabzadi Bilkis Banu. His maternal grandfather was Khwaja Ahsanullah, nawab of Dacca...

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Zia ul Haq, Mohammad (1922–1988), president of Pakistan, was born on 12 August 1922 in Jullundur in the pre-partition Punjab province of British India. He was born into a lower-middle-class Arain family. This was not the martial caste background from which the Indian army traditionally drew its Punjabi Muslim recruits. ...