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Æthelwine [Ethelwine, Æthelwine Dei Amicus] (d. 992), magnate and founder of Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdonshire  

Cyril Hart

Æthelwine [Ethelwine, Æthelwine Dei Amicus] (d. 992), magnate and founder of Ramsey Abbey, Huntingdonshire, was the fourth and youngest son of Æthelstan, known as the Half-King (932–956), and his wife, Ælfwyn (d. 986). He was a few years older than the atheling ...

Article

Aigueblanche, Peter d' [Peter de Aqua Blanca] (d. 1268), bishop of Hereford and royal councillor  

Nicholas Vincent

Aigueblanche, Peter d' [Peter de Aqua Blanca] (d. 1268), bishop of Hereford and royal councillor, was descended from the family of Briançon, holders of the lordship of Aigueblanche (Savoie) in the Tarentaise or valley of the upper Isère, dependants of the counts of Savoy...

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Cover Aigueblanche, Peter d' (d. 1268)
Peter d' Aigueblanche (d. 1268) tomb effigy by permission of the Dean and Chapter of Hereford Cathedral

Article

Avranches, Hugh d', first earl of Chester (d. 1101), magnate and founder of Chester Abbey  

C. P. Lewis

Avranches, Hugh d', first earl of Chester (d. 1101), magnate and founder of Chester Abbey, was the son of Richard Goz, vicomte d'Avranches and seigneur de St Sever, and an unknown mother formerly identified on the basis of unsatisfactory evidence as Emma, supposedly a half-sister of ...

Article

Barking, Richard of (d. 1246), abbot of Westminster and royal councillor  

Nicholas Vincent

Barking, Richard of (d. 1246), abbot of Westminster and royal councillor, was presumably a native of Barking in Essex. His mother, Lucy, was commemorated by an obit celebration at Westminster, and can probably be identified as Lucy, widow of Richard of Barking, who gave the abbey land at ...

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Cover Beaufort, Henry (1375?–1447)
Henry Beaufort (1375?–1447) stone effigy © English Heritage. NMR

Article

Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal  

G. L. Harriss

Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403), daughter of the Hainaulter Sir Payn Roelt, who was governess to the duke's children [...

Article

Benedict [Benedict of Peterborough] (c. 1135–1193), abbot of Peterborough and royal councillor  

Edmund King

Benedict [Benedict of Peterborough] (c. 1135–1193), abbot of Peterborough and royal councillor, is first recorded at the event that shaped his life, as an eyewitness to the murder of Thomas Becket in his cathedral church at Canterbury on 29 December 1170. A monk of ...

Article

Browne, Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare (1726–1795), landowner and politician  

Liam Chambers

Browne, Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare (1726–1795), landowner and politician, was born in April 1726, probably at Killarney, co. Kerry, the second of four children of Valentine Browne, third Viscount Kenmare (1695–1736), landowner, and his first wife, Honoria Butler (d. 1730), daughter of ...

Article

Campbell, Archibald, fifth earl of Argyll (1538–1573), magnate and protestant reformer  

Jane E. A. Dawson

Campbell, Archibald, fifth earl of Argyll (1538–1573), magnate and protestant reformer, was the eldest son of Archibald Campbell, fourth earl of Argyll (1498–1558), and his first wife, Lady Helen Hamilton (d. in or before 1541), daughter of the first earl of Arran...

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Clare, Walter de (d. 1137/8?), baron and founder of Tintern Abbey  

J. H. Round

revised by C. Warren Hollister

Clare, Walter de (d. 1137/8?), baron and founder of Tintern Abbey, was known to contemporaries as Walter fitz Richard. He was a non-inheriting younger son of Richard de Clare (1030x35–1087x90), lord of Orbec and Bienfaite in Normandy and Domesday lord of Clare and ...

Article

Croxley [Crokesley], Richard of (d. 1258), abbot of Westminster and royal councillor  

Nicholas Vincent

Croxley [Crokesley], Richard of (d. 1258), abbot of Westminster and royal councillor, was probably a native of Croxley in Hertfordshire. He first appears as a monk of Westminster in the late 1230s, as the abbey's proctor to the papal curia. In 1242 he escorted a relic of the Virgin's girdle to the king and queen in ...

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Geoffrey (d. 1093), bishop of Coutances and magnate  

Marjorie Chibnall

Geoffrey (d. 1093), bishop of Coutances and magnate, belonged to the energetic and warlike baronage of western Normandy who did so much to restore the Norman church after the viking raids and civil wars of the tenth and early eleventh centuries, and were among the most prominent counsellors and supporters of ...

Article

Geoffrey (1151?–1212), archbishop of York  

Marie Lovatt

Geoffrey (1151?–1212), archbishop of York, was the illegitimate son of Henry II. He was probably named after his paternal grandfather, Geoffrey of Anjou (d. 1151).

Geoffrey's date of birth is suggested by indirect evidence. ...

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Cover Geoffrey (1151?–1212)

Geoffrey (1151?–1212)  

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Geoffrey (1151?–1212) seal Chapter of Durham Cathedral

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Howard, Philip [St Philip Howard], thirteenth earl of Arundel (1557–1595), magnate and alleged traitor  

J. G. Elzinga

Howard, Philip [St Philip Howard], thirteenth earl of Arundel (1557–1595), magnate and alleged traitor, was born on 28 June 1557 at Arundel House, the Strand, London, the only child of Thomas Howard, fourth duke of Norfolk (1538–1572), nobleman and courtier, and his first wife, ...

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Cover Howard, Philip [St Philip Howard], thirteenth earl of Arundel (1557–1595)

Howard, Philip [St Philip Howard], thirteenth earl of Arundel (1557–1595)  

Maker: unknown artist

In 

Philip Howard [St Philip Howard], thirteenth earl of Arundel (1557–1595) by unknown artist reproduced by kind permission of His Grace the Duke of Norfolk. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Cover Odo, earl of Kent (d. 1097)

Odo, earl of Kent (d. 1097)  

Odo, earl of Kent (d. 1097) embroidery (Bayeux Tapestry) [seated, third from right] by special permission of the City of Bayeux

Article

Odo, earl of Kent (d. 1097), bishop of Bayeux and magnate  

David Bates

Odo, earl of Kent (d. 1097), bishop of Bayeux and magnate, was the son of Herluin de Conteville (d. c.1066), a Norman magnate of vicomte status who held lands around Grestain to the south of the Seine estuary, and of Herleva (...

Article

Percy, Richard de (b. before 1181, d. 1244), baron  

W. E. Rhodes

revised by Hugh M. Thomas

Percy, Richard de (b. before 1181, d. 1244), baron, was the second son of Agnes (d. c.1202), heir of the original Percy family, and Joscelin de Louvain (d. 1180), a younger son of Godefroi, duke of Lower Lorraine, and brother of ...