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Baker, Thomas Barwick Lloyd (1807–1886), promoter of reformatory schools, was born at the family seat, Hardwicke Court, the only son of Thomas John Lloyd Baker and his wife, Mary, daughter of William Sharp of Fulham. Like his father, Baker went to Eton College...

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Bambridge, Thomas (d. 1741), prison warden, became briefly notorious for the regime of extreme cruelty he inflicted upon the prisoners under his charge. The details of his parentage and childhood are unknown. He practised as a London attorney and had chambers at the ...

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Bayley, Thomas Butterworth (1744–1802), penal reformer, was born at Manchester to one of the town's well-established nonconformist families. His father, Daniel Bayley, was deputy lieutenant for Lancashire and served, along with his father-in-law Thomas Butterworth, as a trustee of Manchester's Cross Street Chapel...

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Berry, James (1852–1913), hangman, was born at Heckmondwike, Yorkshire, on 8 February 1852, one of the large family of Daniel Berry, a woolstapler, and Mary Ann Berry (née Kelley), both Wesleyan Methodists. He attended Heckmondwike day school and a boarding-school, Wrea Green Academy...

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Brandon, Richard (d. 1649), common hangman and probable executioner of Charles I, was the son of Gregory Brandon, whom he succeeded in the post of common hangman. His father was certainly hangman of London by 1611, when he was living in Rosemary Lane, Whitechapel...

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Brise, Sir Evelyn John Ruggles- (1857–1935), prison administrator and founder of the Borstal system, was born on 6 December 1857 at Spains Hall, Finchingfield, Essex, the second son of Sir Samuel Brise Ruggles-Brise (1825–1899) and his wife, Marianne Weyland, fourth daughter of Sir Edward Bowyer Smith, ...

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Buckley, William (1780–1856), convict and settler in Australia, was born at Marton, near Macclesfield, Cheshire, the son of small farmers. He learned to read at evening school before being apprenticed as a bricklayer. At nineteen he enlisted in the local militia, then the ...

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G. C. Boase

revised by J. Gilliland

Calcraft, William (1800–1879), hangman, was born at Baddow, near Chelmsford. He was a cobbler by trade and had once been a nightwatchman at Reid's brewery in Clerkenwell. He then hawked meat pies around the streets, and particularly around Newgate, where he became known to the execution staff and to the hangman, ...

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See Campbell, Robert

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Clay, John (1796–1858), prison chaplain, was born in Liverpool on 10 May 1796, the fifth son of Thomas Clay (d. 1821), ship- and anchorsmith, and his wife, Mary Lowe. He was a sickly child and was seen by the family as having learning difficulties. He was sent to ...

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Coles, Charles Edward [called Coles Pasha] (1853–1926), prison administrator in Egypt, was born at Buge, India, on 17 November 1853, the only son of Major-General Thomas Gordon Coles of the Indian army, and his wife, Maria, daughter of Colonel Charles D'Oyle Straker...

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Crawford, William (1788–1847), prison inspector, the youngest son of Captain Robert Crawford and his wife, Mary Haw of Great Yarmouth, was born on 30 May 1788 in London, where his father ran a wine retail business. He was educated for a business career, but from 1805 to 1815 he worked at the ...

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Crofton, Sir Walter Frederick (1815–1897), prison administrator and penal reformer, was born at Courtrai, Flanders, on 27 February 1815, the second son in the family of two sons and two daughters of Walter Crofton (1784-1815) and his wife Harriet née Wauchope (1782/3-1836). His father, a captain in the ...

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Dawtry, Frank Dalmeny (1902–1968), probation service organizer, was born on 17 January 1902 at 54 Cromwell Street, Walkley, Sheffield, the son of Wycliffe Bright Dawtry, cabinet-maker, and his wife, Alice Jackson Ross. His father was a Unitarian and keen Liberal, who had been apprenticed as a pattern maker by his father, a renowned foundry foreman, when the use of cast iron was at its height. The youngest and most delicate of four brothers, ...

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Devon, James (1866–1939), prison medical officer and criminologist, was born on 25 October 1866 at 18 James Street, Calton, Glasgow, the son of John Devon, a journeyman iron-moulder, and his wife, Margaret, née Arthur. His family was poor working class—his mother signed his birth certificate with a cross—and he left school aged eleven. ...

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Du Cane, Sir Edmund Frederick (1830–1903), prison administrator and army officer, born at Colchester on 23 March 1830, was the youngest of the four sons and two daughters of Major Richard Du Cane (1788–1832), and Eliza (1791–1870), daughter of Thomas Ware of Woodfort, Mallow, co. Cork, Ireland...

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William Eden, first Baron Auckland (1744–1814) by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1792 Christ Church, Oxford

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Eden, William, first Baron Auckland (1744–1814), penal reformer and diplomatist, was born on 3 April 1744, the third son of Sir Robert Eden, third baronet (d. 1755), landowner, of Windlestone Hall, West Auckland, co. Durham, and Mary (d. 1794), daughter of ...

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John Ellis (1874–1932) by unknown photographer PA Photos

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Ellis, John (1874–1932), executioner, was born on 4 October 1874 at Buersil, Rochdale, the eldest child of Joseph James Ellis, a hairdresser, and his wife, Sarah Ann, née Dawson. He left school to work for the local Eagle Spinning Company. When he was twenty, he married ...