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John Adams (1768?–1829) attrib. Richard Beechey, 1825 Phillips Picture Library

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Adams, John [alias Alexander Smith] (1768?–1829), seaman, mutineer, and settler, was born in London probably in 1768 and was serving under the name of Smith as an able seaman on HMS Bounty at the time of the mutiny on 28 April 1789 [...

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H. M. Chichester

revised by A. G. L. Shaw

Anderson, Joseph (1790–1877), army officer and colonist, was born on 1 July 1790 at Keoldale, Sutherland, Scotland, the son of James Anderson of Rispond and his wife, Fairly Gordon. In 1805 he was appointed an ensign in the 78th highlanders, with which he served in ...

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Cadogan, William (1601–1661), soldier and settler in Ireland, was born in Cardiff on 5 February 1601, the eldest son of Henry Cadogan of Llanbedr Felffre, Pembrokeshire, and Catherine, daughter of Thomas Stradling of St Donats Castle and Merthyr Mawr, Glamorgan. Although a Welshman by birth and upbringing, ...

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Cunningham, Peter Miller (1789–1864), naval surgeon and pioneer in Australia, fifth and youngest son of John Cunningham (1743–1800) of Dalswinton, near Dumfries, land steward and farmer, and his wife, Elizabeth, née Harley, the daughter of a Dumfries merchant, was born at Dalswinton in November 1789. He was brother of ...

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Elfrith, Daniel (fl. 1607–1640), privateer and colonist in the West Indies, was active in the Caribbean from 1607. Nothing is known of his earlier life. He was memorialized by Alexander Brown in his Genesis of the United States (1890) as 'the man who carried the first rats to the ...

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Farewell, Francis George (1793–1829), naval officer and settler in Natal, was born in Wincanton, Somerset, the second son of Samuel Farewell (d. 1801), rector of Wincanton. After his father's death the family moved to Tiverton, where he was educated at Blundell's School...

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Fenwick, George (c. 1603–1657), colonist in America, army officer, and politician, was the son of George Fenwick of Brinkburn, Northumberland, a country squire, and his wife, Dorothy, daughter of John Forster of Newham. He matriculated at Queens' College, Cambridge, in 1619, was called to the bar at ...

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Gorges, Sir Ferdinando (1568–1647), army officer and promoter of colonization in America, was the second son of Edward Gorges (d. 1568) and Cicely Lygon of Wraxall, Somerset. The year of his birth was estimated for some time at 1566, but it appears to be reasonably certain that he was born between 31 May and 23 July 1568 at the family's suburban ...

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Hutchinson, Richard (b. 1597, d. in or before 1670), colonist in America and naval administrator, was born in Alford, Lincolnshire, on 3 January 1597, the fourth child and fourth son in the family of six sons and two daughters (one of whom died young) of ...

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Lane, Sir Ralph (d. 1603), soldier and colonist, was of unknown parentage and education. He ranked in that restless corps of Tudor wanderers who schemed the advance of English interests in Ireland and America even as they chased fortunes for themselves. Nineteenth-century scholars presumed that he came from ...

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Newport, Christopher (bap. 1561, d. 1617), privateer and colonist, was baptized at Harwich, Essex, on 29 December 1561, the son of Christopher Newport, himself a Harwich shipmaster, and his wife, Jane. Young Christopher was serving on the Minion of London in 1580 when he jumped ship at ...

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James Edward Oglethorpe (1696–1785) by Thomas Burford, pubd c. 1743–5 © Copyright The British Museum

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Oglethorpe, James Edward (1696–1785), army officer and founder of the colony of Georgia, was born in London on 22 December 1696, the third and youngest surviving son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe (1650–1702), politician and army officer, and his wife, Eleanor, née Wall (1662–1732)...

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Piers, William (d. 1603), soldier and founder of the town of Carrickfergus, was the son of Richard or Henry Piers of Piers-Hall, near Ingleton, Yorkshire. Nothing is known about his education. He may have been a younger son, which would explain his early career as a soldier....

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Robert Rich, second earl of Warwick (1587–1658) by Sir Anthony Van Dyck, c. 1634 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Jules Bache Collection, 1949. (49.7.26) Photograph © 1998 The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Rich, Robert, second earl of Warwick (1587–1658), colonial promoter and naval officer, was born in May or June 1587, probably at Leighs Priory, Essex, the eldest son of Robert Rich, third Baron Rich and later first earl of Warwick (1559?–1619), courtier and privateer, and his first wife, ...

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Somers, Sir George (1554–1610), privateer and colonial adventurer, was born in Lyme Regis, Dorset, the son of John Somer (as the name was then spelt) and his wife, Alice (d. 1591). He first comes to notice in 1587 when he used prize money to buy ...

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Standish, Myles (c. 1584–1656), soldier and colonist, was born at Ellanbane, Lezayre parish, on the Isle of Man, the second of three sons born to John Standish and Christian Lace. The strongest clues to his parentage come from his will, in which he refers to certain lands in ...

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Thomas Talbot (1771–1853) attrib. James Buckingham Wandesford Collection of McIntosh Gallery, the University of Western Ontario, Gift of Judge Talbot MacBeth, 1941