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Adams, Andrew Leith (1827–1882), army surgeon and naturalist, born on 21 March 1827, was the son of Francis Adams (1796–1861), surgeon, and his wife, Elspeth Shaw (d. 1845). Appointed army surgeon in 1848, Adams joined the 22nd (Cheshire) regiment and was posted to ...

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Brady, Sir Antonio (1811–1881), Admiralty official, naturalist, and social reformer, was born at Deptford, London, on 10 November 1811, the eldest son of Anthony Brady of the Deptford victualling yard, then storekeeper at the Royal William victualling yard, Plymouth, and his wife (whom he married on 20 December 1810), ...

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B. B. Woodward

revised by Yolanda Foote

Busk, George (1807–1886), surgeon and naturalist, was born on 12 August 1807 at St Petersburg, the second son of Robert Busk (1768–1835), merchant of St Petersburg, and his wife, Jane, daughter of John Westly, a customs house clerk at St Petersburg. Sir Wadsworth Busk (1730–1811)...

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Bynoe, Benjamin (1803–1865), ship's surgeon and naturalist, was born at Christ Church, Barbados, on 25 July 1803, the son of Samuel and Elizabeth Bynoe. Nothing is known of Bynoe's education and though he was sometimes styled MD there is no record that he obtained this qualification in the ...

Article

H. D. Rolleston

revised by Andrew Lambert

Coppinger, Richard William (1847–1910), naval surgeon and naturalist, born on 11 October 1847 in Dublin, was the youngest of the six sons of Joseph William Coppinger, a solicitor of Farmley, Dundrum, co. Dublin, and his wife, Agnes Mary, only daughter of William Lalor Cooke...

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Arthur Hay, ninth marquess of Tweeddale (1824–1878) by Thomas Richard Williams, c. 1860 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Hay, Arthur, ninth marquess of Tweeddale (1824–1878), army officer and naturalist, was born at Yester, East Lothian, on 9 November 1824, the son of George Hay, eighth marquess of Tweeddale (1787–1876), army officer and agriculturist, and his wife, Lady Susan (1797–1870), daughter of ...

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(Charles Henry) Maxwell Knight (1900–1968) by Howard Coster, 1934 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Knight, (Charles Henry) Maxwell (1900–1968), intelligence officer and naturalist, was born on 9 July 1900 at 199 Selhurst Road, South Norwood, Croydon, one of at least two sons of Hugh Coleraine Knight (d. 1914), a solicitor, and his wife, Ada Phyllis Roberts, ...

Article

Macdonald, Sir John Denis (1826–1908), naval medical officer and biologist, born at Cork on 26 October 1826, was the youngest son of James Macdonald, an artist, and his wife, Catherine, daughter of Denis McCarthy of Kilcoleman, co. Cork. His father was the representative of the ...

Article

J. K. Laughton

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

McCormick, Robert (1800–1890), naval surgeon, explorer, and naturalist, born at Runham, near Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, on 22 July 1800, was the only son of Robert McCormick (d. 1817), surgeon in the navy, son of Robert McCormick of Ballyreagh, co. Tyrone, where the family had been settled for several generations. He spent his childhood near ...

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Richard Meinertzhagen (1878–1967) by unknown photographer, 1906 Trustees of the Col. R. Meinertzhagen Trusts / Rhodes House Library

Article

Meinertzhagen, Richard (1878–1967), naturalist and army officer, was born on 3 March 1878 at 10 Rutland Gate, Knightsbridge, London, the second son and third child in the family of four sons and five daughters of Daniel Meinertzhagen, a London merchant banker whose German family had long settled in ...

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Paterson, William (1755–1810), army officer and naturalist, was born on 17 August 1755 in Scotland of unknown parentage. There he developed a lifelong interest in botany. Supported by Mary Bowes, countess of Strathmore, he made four journeys from Cape Town into the interior of ...

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Smith, Sir Andrew (1797–1872), army medical officer and naturalist, was born on 3 December 1797 in Kirktoun parish, Roxburghshire, to Thomas P. Smith, a shepherd, and Grizzel Tait Winnington. After local schooling he was apprenticed to Mr Graham, a surgeon in Hawick, and studied medicine at the ...

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Smith, Charles Hamilton (1776–1859), soldier and natural historian, was born in east Flanders on 26 December 1776, a descendant of a Flemish protestant family. He was at school in Richmond, Surrey, when a revolt occurred in the Low Countries and he was called home to study in the ...

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Maker: Elliott & Fry

Jan Christiaan Smuts (1870–1950) by Elliott & Fry, 1917 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Smuts, Jan Christiaan (1870–1950), prime minister of South Africa, army officer, and writer on evolution, was born on 24 May 1870 at Bovenplaats, near Riebeeck West in the Malmesbury district of Cape Colony, the second child of Jacobus Abraham (Kosie) Smuts (1845–1914) and ...

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Sykes, William Henry (1790–1872), army officer in the East India Company and naturalist, son of Samuel Sykes of Friezing Hall, Yorkshire, the descendant of the Drighlington branch of an old Yorkshire family, was born on 25 January 1790. He entered the military service of the ...

Article

Vevers, (Henry) Gwynne (1916–1988), marine biologist and intelligence officer, was born on 13 November 1916 at Girvan, Ayrshire, the elder son of Geoffrey Marr Vevers and Catherine Rigby, née Andrews, from Ayrshire. Gwynne Vevers's zoological and popularizing bent were dictated by his education and by his father's interests. ...