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Article

Ælfthryth (d. 929), princess  

Elisabeth van Houts

Ælfthryth (d. 929), princess, was the youngest of three daughters of King Alfred (d. 899) and Queen Ealhswith, daughter of Æthelred Mucel, ealdorman of the 'Gaini'. She also had two brothers. According to her father's biographer Asser, she was educated with her brother ...

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Æthelflæd [Ethelfleda] (d. 918), ruler of the Mercians  

Marios Costambeys

Æthelflæd [Ethelfleda] (d. 918), ruler of the Mercians, was the daughter and first-born child of Alfred (d. 899), king of the West Saxons and later of the Anglo-Saxons, and his wife, Ealhswith (d. 902), daughter of Æthelred, ealdorman of the ‘Gaini’, and Eadburh...

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Æthelthryth [St Æthelthryth, Etheldreda, Audrey] (d. 679), queen in Northumbria, consort of King Ecgfrith, and abbess of Ely  

Alan Thacker

Æthelthryth [St Æthelthryth, Etheldreda, Audrey] (d. 679), queen in Northumbria, consort of King Ecgfrith, and abbess of Ely, was the daughter of Anna, king of the East Angles (d. 654?). Her immediate kindred was dominated by women in religion, later venerated as saints, including three sisters, ...

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Bertha (b. c. 565, d. in or after 601), queen in Kent, consort of Æthelberht  

Janet L. Nelson

Bertha (b. c. 565, d. in or after 601), queen in Kent, consort of Æthelberht, was the daughter of the Merovingian Frankish king Charibert (d. 567) who reigned from 561. She was married to the then pagan Æthelberht (d. 616?), son of the ...

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Cynethryth (fl. c. 770–798), queen of the Mercians and abbess of Cookham  

S. E. Kelly

Cynethryth (fl. c. 770–798), queen of the Mercians and abbess of Cookham, was the wife of King Offa and the mother of his son and successor, Ecgfrith [see under Offa]. Her origins are unknown, as is the date of her marriage. She attested her husband's charters on a regular basis from ...

Article

Eadburh [Eadburga] (fl. 789–802), queen of the West Saxons, consort of King Beorhtric  

Janet L. Nelson

Eadburh [Eadburga] (fl. 789–802), queen of the West Saxons, consort of King Beorhtric, was the daughter of Offa (d. 796), king of the Mercians, and his wife Cynethryth (c. 770–798). In 789 she became the wife of Beorhtric (d. 802), who ruled Wessex...

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Eadgifu (b. in or before 904, d. in or after 966), queen of the Anglo-Saxons, consort of Edward the Elder  

Pauline Stafford

Eadgifu (b. in or before 904, d. in or after 966), queen of the Anglo-Saxons, consort of Edward the Elder, was the daughter of Sigehelm, a Kentish ealdorman killed at the battle of the Holme in 903. She was the wife of King Edward the Elder...

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Eadgifu (d. in or after 951), queen of the West Franks, consort of Charles III  

Janet L. Nelson

Eadgifu (d. in or after 951), queen of the West Franks, consort of Charles III, was born in Wessex, the daughter of Edward the Elder, king of the Anglo-Saxons (d. 924), and his second wife, Ælfflæd, and thus half-sister of Æthelstan, king of England...

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Eadgyth (c. 911–946), queen of the East Franks, consort of Otto I  

Pauline Stafford

Eadgyth (c. 911–946), queen of the East Franks, consort of Otto I, was born in Wessex, the daughter of Edward the Elder (870s?–924), king of the Anglo-Saxons, and his second wife, Ælfflæd. She was thus half-sister of Æthelstan, king of England (893/4–939) and ...

Article

Ealhswith (d. 902), consort of Alfred, king of the West Saxons from 871 and of the Anglo-Saxons from 886  

Marios Costambeys

Ealhswith (d. 902), consort of Alfred, king of the West Saxons from 871 and of the Anglo-Saxons from 886, was the daughter of Æthelred Mucel, ealdorman of the 'Gaini' (presumably an old tribal group of the Mercians), and his wife, Eadburh...

Article

Eanflæd [St Eanflæd] (b. 626, d. after 685), queen in Northumbria, consort of King Oswiu  

Alan Thacker

Eanflæd [St Eanflæd] (b. 626, d. after 685), queen in Northumbria, consort of King Oswiu, was the daughter of Eadwine (d. 633), king in Northumbria, and his wife, the Kentish princess Æthelburh (d. 647). Born on Easter eve (19 April) 626, she was baptized by ...

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Gormlaith [Gormphly] (d. 948), queen in Ireland and tragic heroine  

Elva Johnston

Gormlaith [Gormphly] (d. 948), queen in Ireland and tragic heroine, was the daughter of Flann Sinna mac Máele Sechnaill (847/8–916), the southern Uí Néill high-king, and a sister of Donnchad Donn mac Flainn (d. 944), also a high-king. The annals of Ulster contain the earliest witness to her. They simply name her, and her father, before remarking that she died in penitence, in 948....

Article

Helena [St Helena, Helen, Flavia Julia Helena] (c. 248–328/9), mother of the Roman emperor Constantine I  

Marios Costambeys

Helena [St Helena, Helen, Flavia Julia Helena] (c. 248–328/9), mother of the Roman emperor Constantine I, has no historical connection with Britain, despite a widespread belief that she was of British origin. This myth, which stems from a strong medieval tradition resulting in numerous dedications to her, especially in ...

Article

Joan [Siwan] (d. 1237), princess of Gwynedd, wife of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth  

Kate Norgate

revised by A. D. Carr

Joan [Siwan] (d. 1237), princess of Gwynedd, wife of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, was the illegitimate daughter of John, king of England, and an unknown mother. A charge for a ship 'to carry the king's daughter and the king's accoutrements to England' from ...

Article

See Æthelwulf

Article

Eleanor [Eleanor de Montfort] (c. 1258–1282), princess of Wales, wife of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd  

Kate Norgate

revised by Marios Costambeys

Eleanor [Eleanor de Montfort] (c. 1258–1282), princess of Wales, wife of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was the only daughter of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester (c. 1208–1265), and his wife, Eleanor (1215?–1275). Sir Henry de Montfort (1238–1265), Sir Simon de Montfort (1240–1271), Amaury de Montfort (1242/3–c. 1300)...

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Osthryth [Ostrith] (d. 697), queen of the Mercians, consort of King Æthelred  

S. E. Kelly

Osthryth [Ostrith] (d. 697), queen of the Mercians, consort of King Æthelred, was the daughter of Oswiu (611/12–670), king of Northumbria, and his second wife, Eanflaed. Her marriage appears to have taken place some time before 679, in which year her husband fought with her brother ...

Article

Seaxburh [St Seaxburh, Sexburga] (b. in or before 655, d. c. 700), queen of Kent, consort of King Eorcenberht, and abbess of Ely  

David Rollason

Seaxburh [St Seaxburh, Sexburga] (b. in or before 655, d. c. 700), queen of Kent, consort of King Eorcenberht, and abbess of Ely, is described by Bede in his Historia ecclesiastica as the eldest daughter of Anna, king of the East Angles (d. 654?)...

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Seaxburh [Sexburga] (d. 674?), queen of the Gewisse  

Barbara Yorke

Seaxburh [Sexburga] (d. 674?), queen of the Gewisse, was the wife of Cenwalh, king of the Gewisse, and has the distinction of being the only woman to appear in an Anglo-Saxon regnal list. Her reign is said to have begun in 672 after the death of her husband and to have lasted a year, though she may actually have ruled slightly longer than twelve months, as the next reign recorded in the ...