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Anders, Władysław (1892–1970), army officer and politician, was born on 11 August 1892 in Błonie, in the county of Kutno, in Russian Poland. The eldest of four sons of Catholic parents, he attended secondary school in Warsaw, and moved with the family to ...

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Beckett, John William (1894–1964), political activist and journalist, was born at 165 King Street, Hammersmith, London, on 11 October 1894, the only son of William Beckett, master draper, and Eva Dorothy (née Salmon). He was educated at the local elementary school and ...

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Joseph Cahill (1920–2004) by Paul Faith, 2003 PA Photos

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Cahill, Joseph [Joe] (1920–2004), Irish republican activist, was born on 19 May 1920 at 60 Divis Street, Belfast, the eldest son and first of the eleven children of Joseph Cahill, printer, and his wife, Josephine, née Mulholland. A Roman Catholic, he attended St Mary's Christian Brothers School...

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Clarke [née Daly], Kathleen (1878–1972), political activist, was born on 11 April 1878 at Frederick Street, Limerick, the third of nine children born to Edward Daly, businessman, and his wife, Catherine, née O'Mara, a dressmaker. The family's political sympathies were strongly nationalist and her father had been imprisoned for involvement in the Fenian rising of 1867. ...

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Collingwood, George (c. 1679–1716), Jacobite insurgent, was born in Eslington, Northumberland, the eldest son of William Collingwood (c.1654–1715), gentleman, and Mary (b. 1659), daughter of Sir Richard Forster of Stokesley, second baronet. He held estates at Eslington worth approximately £900...

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Czira [née Gifford], Sidney [pseud. John Brennan] (1889–1974), journalist and Irish republican activist, was born at 8 Temple Villas, Palmerston Road, Rathmines, Dublin, on 3 August 1889, the youngest daughter and youngest of the twelve children (six boys and six girls) of ...

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Daly, James (c. 1840–1911), political activist and newspaper proprietor, was born in Boghadoon, co. Mayo, the son of a bailiff on the Elm Hall estate at Belcarra. He was educated by the Franciscan brothers at Errew monastery, near Castlebar, co. Mayo. A tenant and bailiff of estates in ...

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L. C. Sanders

revised by Jonathan Spain

Dromgoole, Thomas (d. 1824x9?), political activist, came from Ireland; nothing else is known of his life until he graduated MD at the University of Edinburgh in 1800 with his thesis 'De rheumatismo'. He settled as a physician in Dawson Street, Dublin, though he possessed a 'small fortune which rendered him independent of patients' (...

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Gallacher, William (1881–1965), political activist and politician, was born on 25 December 1881 at 39 Back Sneddon Street in the Irish ghetto of Sneddon, Paisley, the eighth-born child of Scottish parents, John Gallacher (c.1839–1889), a labourer and formerly a soldier, and his wife, ...

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William Gallacher (1881–1965) by Howard Coster, 1936 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Garvey, Marcus Mosiah (1887–1940), pan-African nationalist leader, was born on 17 August 1887 in St Ann's Bay, Jamaica, the last of two surviving children of Malcus Mosiah Garvey, stonemason (1838–1920), and Sarah Jane Richards (1847/1852–1908), a farmer and domestic servant. His father was a descendant of the maroons, fugitive Africans from the era of slavery. ...

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Marcus Mosiah Garvey (1887–1940) by unknown photographer, c. 1920 Getty Images

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Gibson [née Cullum], (Susannah) Arethusa (1814–1885), society hostess and political activist, was born on 11 January 1814 at Southgate Green, Bury St Edmunds, the only child of Revd Sir Thomas Gery Cullum, eighth baronet (1777–1855), and his first wife, Mary Anne, née...

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Grace Evelyn Mary Vandeleur Gifford (1888–1955) by Sean O'Sullivan, 1933 © courtesy of the Artist's Estate; National Gallery of Ireland

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Gifford [married name Plunkett], Grace Evelyn Mary Vandeleur (1888–1955), artist and Irish nationalist, was born at 8 Temple Villas, Palmerston Road, Rathmines, Dublin, on 4 March 1888, one of the twelve children of Frederick Gifford (d. 1917), a solicitor, and his wife, ...

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J. T. Gilbert

revised by Margaret Ó hÓgartaigh

Hay, Edward (c. 1761–1826), historian and political activist, was born at Ballinkeele, co. Wexford, Ireland, the eldest son of Harvey Hay (d. 1796), landowner, and Catherine Fergus, who were Roman Catholics. He studied in France and Germany before returning to Ireland, where he took part in the public movements for effecting a relaxation of the penal laws against Catholics. In 1791 he was elected by the ...

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Hector, Leonard Churchill [Tim] (1942–2002), journalist and political activist in Antigua, was born on 24 November 1942 in St John's, Antigua. His father was from Montserrat. He was brought up by his Antiguan mother, Mable Hector, whom he always credited with being his role model. He was a Roman Catholic, and his education began at ...

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Herbert, Auberon Mark Yvo Henry Molyneux (1922–1974), landowner and campaigner for eastern European causes, born in Egham on 25 April 1922, was the only son of Aubrey Nigel Henry Molyneux Herbert (1880–1923), MP, of Pixton Park, Dulverton, and his wife, Mary Gertrude Vesey (1889–1970)...

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Hyde, Douglas Arnold (1911–1996), journalist and political activist, was born on 8 April 1911 at 43 Queen Street, Worthing, Sussex, the son of Gerald Hyde, a pastry cook and confectioner, and his wife, Alice Emily, née Shill, a dressmaker and milliner, who later became a journalist. After living in ...