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Sir John Stanhope Arkwright (1872–1954) by Sir Benjamin Stone, 1902 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Arkwright, Sir John Stanhope (1872–1954), politician and hymn writer, was born at 11 Lowndes Street, London, on 10 July 1872, the only son (there were three daughters) of John Hungerford Arkwright (1833–1905), landowner and lord lieutenant of Herefordshire, of Hampton Court, Leominster, Herefordshire...

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Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator, was born on 6 March 1663 at Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, the younger son of Lewis Atterbury (1630/31–1693) [see under Atterbury, Lewis (1656-1731)], then rector of Milton Keynes, and his wife, Elizabeth, ...

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Francis Atterbury (1663–1732) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1718 Christ Church, Oxford

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Balfour, Gerald William, second earl of Balfour (1853–1945), politician and psychical researcher, was born on 9 April 1853, in Edinburgh, the seventh of eight children of James Maitland Balfour (1820–1856), MP, sportsman, and country gentleman, and his wife, Lady Blanche Mary Harriet Gascoyne-Cecil (1825–1872)...

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Praisegod Barbon (c. 1598–167980) by unknown engraver © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Barbon [Barebone], Praisegod (c. 1598–1679/80), lay preacher and politician, first appears in 1623, when he was made free of the Company of Leathersellers in London; having served an eight- or nine-year apprenticeship, he was probably then aged about twenty-five. At an unknown date, but probably by 1632, ...

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Barnardiston, Sir Nathaniel (1588–1653), politician and ecclesiastical patron, was born at Kedington, Suffolk, the eldest son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (d. 1610), and his first wife, Mary (d. in or before 1599), daughter of Sir Richard Knightley of Fawsley, Northamptonshire. One of the oldest families in ...

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Barr, James (1862–1949), minister of the United Free Church of Scotland and politician, was born on 26 July 1862 at Beanscroft Farm in the parish of Fenwick, Ayrshire, the eldest of eight children born to Allan Barr, farmer, and his wife, Elizabeth Brown...

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Barrington, John Shute, first Viscount Barrington (1678–1734), politician and Christian apologist, born in Theobalds, Hertfordshire, was the third son of Benjamin Shute, a London merchant 'descended from Robert Shute of Hockington in the county of Cambridge, one of the twelve judges in the reign of ...

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Bradford, Robert John (1941–1981), Methodist minister and politician, was born in Roe Valley District Hospital, Limavady, co. Londonderry, on 8 June 1941, the seventh child of George Bradford, a labourer and later a milkman, and his wife, Lily, née Wright. His parents, who were wartime evacuees from ...

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Bradlaugh, Charles (1833–1891), politician and freethinker, was born on 26 September 1833 at home at 31 Bacchus Walk, Hoxton, London, the eldest of seven children born to Charles Bradlaugh, a solicitor's clerk, and his wife, Elizabeth Trimby, a former nursemaid. He was baptized at ...

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Charles Bradlaugh (1833–1891) by Walter Sickert, exh. New English Art Club 1890 © Estate of Walter R. Sickert. All rights reserved, DACS 2010; National Liberal Club; © reserved in the photograph

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Broke, Thomas (b. c. 1513, d. in or after 1555), religious radical and member of parliament, was possibly the younger son of Thomas Brooke (or Cobham) of Reculver, Kent, or of Edward Broke of Aspall, Kent. His name was far from uncommon, and establishing his identity poses some difficulties. He was clearly not the ...

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Brotherton, Joseph (1783–1857), Cowherdite Bible Christian minister and politician, was born on 22 May 1783 at Whittington, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, the son of John Brotherton (d. 1809), and his wife, Mary. John Brotherton, a one-time schoolmaster and exciseman, moved his family to ...

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Joseph Brotherton (1783–1857) by Samuel William Reynolds junior, pubd 1836 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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W. P. Courtney

revised by M. J. Mercer

Burgh, William (1741/2–1808), politician and theological writer, was born in Ireland, the eldest son of Thomas Burgh, MP and landowner, of Bert, co. Kildare, and Anne, daughter of Dive Downes, bishop of Cork and Ross. His grandfather was Ulysses Burgh, bishop of Ardagh...

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Cecil, James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-, fourth marquess of Salisbury (1861–1947), politician and lay churchman, was born on 23 October 1861 at 21 Fitzroy Square, London, the eldest of the five sons and third of the eight children of Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, successively ...

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Clarke, Henry (1828–1907), Church of England clergyman and politician, was born on 30 April 1828, in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, third of the five sons of John Cordon Clarke, silk dyer, and Mary Waters. His mother converted to Methodism while pregnant with Henry, and dedicated her unborn son to ...

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Cohen, Sir Benjamin Louis, first baronet (1844–1909), politician and Jewish communal leader, was born on 18 November 1844 at South Street, Finsbury, London, the eighth of nine surviving children of Louis Cohen (1799–1882), founder of the City firm of Louis Cohen & Sons...