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Bergenroth, Gustav Adolph (1813–1869), historian, was born at Treuburg, East Prussia, on 26 February 1813, the second of the five sons of Johann Friedrich Bergenroth, the town magistrate, and his wife, Johanna Dörk. At home and at school in Lyck he developed the discipline, self-reliance, and stamina which laid the basis of his life's work. After taking a degree in law at the ...

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Bleek, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel (1827–1875), philologist, was born at Berlin on 8 March 1827, the first of six sons and four daughters of Friedrich Bleek (1793–1859), professor of theology at Berlin University, and from 1829 at Bonn University, and his wife, Augusta Charlotte Marianne Henriette, ...

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Thompson Cooper

revised by D. G. C. Allan

Brander, Gustavus (1719/20–1787), merchant and antiquary, was born in either London or Sweden, and was the son of Charles Brander (1681–1745) and his wife, Margaret (1687–1757). The family was of Swedish descent. Gustavus was trained in the Scandinavian trade, which he carried on with great success in the ...

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Elias Lunn Bredsdorff (1912–2002) by Bertyl Gaye, c. 1962–1963 The Master and Fellows of Peterhouse, Cambridge

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Bredsdorff, Elias Lunn (1912–2002), Danish scholar, was born on 15 January 1912 at Roskilde folk high school, Denmark, the youngest of six sons of Thomas Vilhelm Birkedal Bredsdorff (1868–1922) and his wife, Margrethe, née Lunn (1871–1958). His father was the headmaster of the school, a further education college run on liberal Christian principles, and his mother a teacher. Originally taught at home, from the age of twelve he attended ...

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Brink, Charles Oscar [formerly Karl Oskar Levy] (1907–1994), classical scholar, was born on 13 March 1907 at Pybalstrasse 14, Charlottenburg, Germany, the elder of two sons of Arthur Levy (1874–1941), lawyer, and his wife, Elise (1879–1956), daughter of Oskar Misch, businessman, of ...

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Fagius, Paul (c. 1504–1549), protestant reformer and Hebraist, was born in Rheinzabern in the Rhine Palatinate, son of Peter Büchelin, schoolmaster and city clerk in Rheinzabern, and Margarethe Hirn of Heidelberg. At the age of eleven he went to the Neckarschule in Heidelberg...

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Fiedler, Hermann Georg (1862–1945), German scholar, was born on 28 April 1862 at Zittau, Saxony, the second of three children of August Fiedler (1837–1912) and Minna Grossmann (1842–1894). His father was Musikdirektor at Zittau and his elder brother (August) Max Fiedler (1859–1939) became one of the most renowned conductors of his time. His sister ...

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Francis Watt

revised by Janette Ryan

Hüttner, Johann Christian (1766–1847), translator, was born at Guben in Lusatia, Germany. He studied philology at Leipzig University and was awarded his doctorate on the basis of his work De mythis Platonis, which was published in Leipzig in 1788. He travelled to England...

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Jacobi, Johann Christian (1670?–1750), bookseller and translator, was born in Germany. He studied at the University of Halle, probably in the 1690s, where he became closely associated with August Hermann Francke, the leading figure of the pietist reform movement within contemporary German Lutheranism, and his circle. Although his motivation in coming to ...

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Krapf, (Johann) Ludwig (1810–1881), linguist of Swahili and first protestant missionary in east Africa, was born on 11 January 1810 at Derendingen near Tübingen, in the kingdom of Württemberg, the youngest of four children of Johann Jakob Krapf (1773–1846), peasant farmer, and his wife, ...

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(Johanna Clara) Louise Lehzen, Baroness Lehzen in the Hanoverian nobility (1784–1870) by Princess Victoria, 1833 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Lehzen, (Johanna Clara) Louise, Baroness Lehzen in the Hanoverian nobility (1784–1870), royal governess, was born on 3 October 1784 in Hanover, among the younger of the seven daughters and two sons of Joachim Friedrich Lehzen, a Lutheran pastor, and his wife, Melusine Palm...

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Eiríkur Magnússon (1833–1913) by Hay, 1867 National Museum of Iceland

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Magnússon, Eiríkur (1833–1913), librarian and Icelandic scholar, was born in the parsonage of Berufjörður in east Iceland on 1 February 1833, the second son and third child of the Revd Magnús Bergsson (1799–1892), then curate of Berufjörður, and his wife, Vilborg Eiríksdóttir (1804–1862)...

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Meidel, Christopher (b. c. 1659, d. in or before 1715), Quaker minister and translator, was born probably in Skien, Norway, one of three or more children of Gert Meidel (c.1606–1696), a shipowner of Langesund, and his wife, Elen, whose surname was probably ...

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Friedrich Max Müller (1823–1900) by George Frederic Watts, 1894–5 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Müller, Friedrich Max (1823–1900), Sanskritist and philologist, was born on 6 December 1823 in Dessau, the capital of the small duchy of Anhalt-Dessau in Germany, the only son of the popular lyric poet Willhelm Müller (1794–1827), and his wife, Adelheid (1799?–1883), elder daughter of ...

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August Heinrich Petermann (1822–1878) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Petermann, August Heinrich (1822–1878), geographer and cartographer, was born in April 1822 (probably on the 1st) in Bleicherode am Eichsfelde, Prussia, the second of six children born to Katherine Henrietta and August Rudolf Petermann. He attended elementary school in Bleicherode and, from 1836 to 1839, the ...