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Adair, John (1660–1718), geographer and cartographer, was born on 2 September 1660 in Leith, Scotland. Nothing is known of his parents or his early education. The first firm reference to Adair dates from May 1681, when he was granted a licence by the ...

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Adams, Clement (c. 1519–1587), schoolmaster and map engraver, was born at Buckington, Warwickshire. He was educated at Eton between 1530 and 1536, and subsequently at the King's Hall, Cambridge. From 17 August 1536 he was tutored in classics, mathematics, and geometry at Cambridge...

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See Bartholomew family

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Campbell, Eila Muriel Joice (1915–1994), university teacher and historian of cartography, was born on 31 December 1915 at Ropley, Hampshire, the eldest child of Walter Howard Claude Campbell (1894–1958), poultry farmer, and his wife, Lillian Muriel, née Locke (1884–1979). After military service Walter Campbell...

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Sir Charles Frederick Arden- Close (1865–1952) by Walter Stoneman, 1939 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

J. De Graaff-Hunter

revised by Yolande Hodson

Close, Sir Charles Frederick Arden- (1865–1952), surveyor and geographer, was born on 10 August 1865 at St Saviour's, Jersey, the eldest of the eleven children of Captain (later Major-General) Frederick Close (1830–1899) and his second wife, Lydia Ann Stevens. He was educated at a dame-school in ...

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Frank Debenham (1883–1965) by Herbert George Ponting, 1911 © Popperfoto

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J. A. Steers

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Debenham, Frank (1883–1965), geographer and polar scientist, was born at Bowral, New South Wales, on 26 December 1883, the second son of the Revd John Willmott Debenham, vicar of Bowral and schoolmaster, and his wife, Edith Cleveland. He attended the school run by his father and, after his death in 1898, by his mother, and from there went to the ...

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Douglas William Freshfield (1845–1934) by unknown photographer [detail] The Royal Geographical Society, London

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R. N. Rudmose Brown

revised by Robin A. Butlin

Freshfield, Douglas William (1845–1934), geographer and mountain explorer, was born at Hampstead, Middlesex, on 27 April 1845, the only son of Henry Ray Freshfield (1814–1895) [see under Freshfield family], solicitor to the Bank of England, and his wife, Jane Quentin, the daughter of ...

Article

Gordon, James [called the Parson of Rothiemay] (1617–1686), historian and map maker, was born at Kinmundy, Aberdeenshire, on 17 May 1617, the fifth son of Robert Gordon of Straloch (1580–1661) and his wife, Katharine Irvine. He probably graduated from Marischal College, Aberdeen...

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Harley, (John) Brian (1932–1991), geographer and map historian, was born on 24 July 1932 in Ashley, Bristol, and spent some of his infant years in Oxford. On 15 March 1935 he was adopted by John Jack Harley (b. 1883), farmer, and his wife, ...

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Hedges, Frederick Albert Mitchell- (1882–1959), adventurer and travel writer, was born in Barnsbury, Islington, London, on 22 October 1882, the eldest of four children of John Hedges (1847–1934), a dealer in precious metals and jewellery from Aston Abbotts, Buckinghamshire, and his wife, Julia Alice (...

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Holdich, Sir Thomas Hungerford (1843–1929), surveyor and geographer, was born at the rectory, Dingley, Northamptonshire, on 13 February 1843, the eldest son of Thomas Peach Holdich, rector of that parish, and Susan, daughter of William Atherton Garrard of Carisbrooke, Isle of Wight, and ...

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Holdingham [Haldingham], Richard of (d. 1278?), cartographic patron and supposed map maker, probably also named as Richard de Bello, is known for certain only as the author or at least the patron of the large and very detailed late thirteenth-century world map which is now preserved at ...

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(Alexander) Keith Johnston the elder (1804–1871) by Maull & Polyblank The Royal Geographical Society, London

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Johnston, (Alexander) Keith, the elder (1804–1871), geographer and cartographer, was the fourth son of Andrew Johnston and his wife, Isabel, daughter of Archibald Keith of Newbattle. He was born on 28 December 1804 at Kirkhill, Midlothian, and was educated at the High School...

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King, Richard (1810/11–1876), Arctic traveller and ethnologist, was born in London, the son of Richard King. He was educated at St Paul's School, London, and in 1824 began a seven-year apprenticeship to an apothecary. In 1832 he was made licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries...

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John Kirby (c. 1690–1753) by Thomas Gainsborough, before 1750 © Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge

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Kirby, John (c. 1690–1753), surveyor and topographer, was, according to his grandson William Kirby (1759–1850), the well-known entomologist, descended from a north-country royalist who, suffering for his loyalty, took his family to Halesworth, Suffolk. This ancestry is supported by the fact that William...