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Abel, Sir Frederick Augustus, first baronet (1827–1902), chemist and explosives expert, was born on 17 July 1827 at Woolwich, the eldest son of Johann Leopold Abel (1795–1871), a music master in Kennington, and his wife, Louisa (d. 1864), daughter of Martin Hopkins...

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Sir Frederick Augustus Abel, first baronet (1827–1902) by Frank Bramley, 1900 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Accum, Friedrich Christian (1769–1838), chemist, was born on 29 March 1769 at Bückeburg, Westphalia, the sixth of the seven children of Christian Accum (b. 1727), a soap maker, and his wife, Judith Susanne Marthe, née Le Motte (b. 1732). His father, named ...

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Aikin, Arthur (1773–1854), natural scientist and author, was born on 19 May 1773 at Warrington, Lancashire, the eldest son of John Aikin (1747–1822) and his wife, Martha (c.1746–1830), daughter of Arthur Jennings of Cheapside, London. His brothers were Charles Rochemont Aikin...

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Arthur Aikin (1773–1854) by William Brockedon, 1826 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Akers, Sir Wallace Alan (1888–1954), chemist and industrialist, was born on 9 September 1888 at Walthamstow, the second child of Charles Akers, a chartered accountant, and his wife, Mary Ethelreda Brown. He was educated at Lake House School in Bexhill, and at Aldenham School...

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Albery, (Wyndham) John (1936–2013), chemist, was born on 5 April 1936 at 19 Bentinck Street, Marylebone, London, the eldest child of Michael James Albery (1910–1975), barrister, and his wife, Mary Laughton, née Isaac (1909–1993). At the time of his birth registration his parents lived at ...

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Albright, Arthur (1811–1900), chemist and phosphorus manufacturer, was born on 3 March 1811 in Charlbury, Oxfordshire, into a Quaker family, the second son and sixth of ten children of William Albright, grocer and mercer of Charlbury, and his wife, Rachel Tanner of Woodborough, Somerset...

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Allen, Norman Percy (1903–1972), metallurgist, was born in Wrexham, north Wales, on 5 June 1903, the fifth of ten children, seven girls and three boys, of Sidney Edward Allen, an accountant in the borough treasurer's department at Wrexham, and his wife, Emily Eliza Davis...

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Allen, Sir Peter Christopher (1905–1993), chemist and industrialist, was born at Mawmead, Ashtead, Surrey, on 8 September 1905, the son of Sir Ernest King Allen (1864–1937), barrister and later assistant public trustee, and his wife, Florence Mary, née Gellatly. After Harrow School (1919–24) he studied natural sciences at ...

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Anderson, (John) Stuart (1908–1990), chemist, was born on 9 January 1908 in Islington, London, the only son and younger child of John Anderson, master cabinet-maker, and his wife, Emma Sarah Pitt. His parents, both widowed, married about 1901–2. From his father's previous marriage there were two stepsisters about twenty years older. Family circumstances declined catastrophically in 1916, when his father died. Just before that, his mother had gone to work in a munitions factory. His sister left school early and the family suffered ten years of acute poverty. These years, during which he was solitary, made ...

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G. F. Rodwell

Reviser T. B. Anderson

Anderson, Thomas (1819–1874), chemist, was born on 2 July 1819, probably in Quality Street, Leith, the eldest of nine children of Charles Anderson (1772–1855), a surgeon, and his wife, Mary, daughter of John Rhind, manager of an Edinburgh insurance office. His grandfather, also named ...

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Andrews, Thomas (1847–1907), metallurgist and ironmaster, was born at 19 Carver Street, Sheffield, on 16 February 1847, the only son of Thomas Andrews and his wife, Mary Bolsover. Thomas Andrews senior was a partner in the Wortley ironworks and the Wortley Silkstone colliery...

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Arthur Harden

Reviser Anita McConnell

Andrews, Thomas (1813–1885), chemist, was born on 19 December 1813 at 3 Donegall Square, Belfast, eldest of the six children of Thomas John Andrews, a linen merchant of Belfast, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of James Stevenson. He received his early education at the ...

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W. P. Courtney

Reviser Robert Brown

Ansell, George Frederick (1826–1880), chemist and assayer, was born at Carshalton, Surrey on 4 March 1826. He was apprenticed for four years to a surgeon, but subsequently took up chemistry. He seems to have spent his life in London. After undergoing a course of instruction at the ...

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Archer, Frederick Scott (1813–1857), inventor of the collodion process in photography, was the second son of Thomas Archer, a butcher at Hertford, where he was probably born. Orphaned as a child, he was brought up by distant relatives and friends and while still a young man was apprenticed to a silversmith and bullion dealer named ...

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Frederick Scott Archer (1813–1857) by Robert Cade, 1855 Royal Photographic Society

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Armstrong, Edward Frankland (1878–1945), chemist, was born on 5 September 1878 at 38 Limes Grove, Lewisham, London, the oldest of seven children of Henry Edward Armstrong (1848–1937), professor of chemistry at the City and Guilds of London Institute, and his wife, Frances Louisa (1843/4–1935)...

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Armstrong, Henry Edward (1848–1937), chemist and educational reformer, was born on 6 May 1848 at Caroline Place, Avenue Road, Lewisham, Kent, the eldest son of Richard Armstrong (1827–1884), a commission agent and importer, and his wife, Mary Ann Biddle. He was educated at ...

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Henry Edward Armstrong (1848–1937) by Thomas Cantrell Dugdale, 1927 © reserved; photograph Royal Institution, London / Bridgeman Art Library