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Anne, duchess of York (1637–1671) by Sir Peter Lely, c. 1660 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Anne (1574–1619) by Paul van Somer, 1617 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Anne [Anna, Anne of Denmark] (1574–1619), queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, consort of James VI and I, was born on 12 December 1574 at Skanderborg Castle in Jutland, Denmark. She was the second daughter of Frederick II (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway...

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Anne [née Anne Hyde], duchess of York (1637–1671), first wife of James II, was born on 12 March 1637 at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor Park, the eldest daughter of Sir Edward Hyde (1609–1674), created earl of Clarendon in 1661, and Frances, daughter of ...

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Catherine (1638–1705) by Jacob Huysmans, c. 1664 [as a shepherdess] The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Catherine [Catherine of Braganza, Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança] (1638–1705), queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, consort of Charles II, was born on 25 November 1638 ns at the Vila Viçosa in Alentejo, Portugal, the third but only surviving daughter of the five children of ...

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Charles II (1630–1685) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1685 Board of Trustees of the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool)

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Charles II (1630–1685), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born on 29 May 1630 at St James's Palace, London, where he was baptized on 27 June, the second (but first surviving) son of Charles I (1600–1649) and Henrietta Maria (1609–1669), the daughter of ...

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Maker: Louis Gabriel Blanchet

Charles Edward (1720–1788) by Louis Gabriel Blanchet, 1738 © National Portrait Gallery

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Charles Edward [Charles Edward Stuart; styled Charles; known as the Young Pretender, Bonnie Prince Charlie] (1720–1788), Jacobite claimant to the English, Scottish, and Irish thrones, was born Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Severino Maria at the Palazzo Muti, Rome, on 31 December 1720 ns, the eldest son of ...

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Clementina (1702–1735) by Francesco Trevisani Museo del Prado, Madrid; photograph © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Clementina [Maria Clementina Stuart, née Sobieska] (1702–1735), consort of James Francis Edward, Jacobite claimant to the English, Scottish, and Irish thrones, was born Maria Clementina on 18 July 1702. She was the third and youngest daughter of James Sobieski, prince of Poland, and his wife, ...

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Henrietta Maria (1609–1669) by Sir Anthony Van Dyck, 1632 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Henrietta Maria [Princess Henrietta Maria of France] (1609–1669), queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, consort of Charles I, was born at the Louvre Palace in Paris on 16/26 November 1609, the fifth surviving child and youngest daughter of Henri IV, king of France and Navarre...

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Princess Henriette Anne, duchess of Orléans (1644–1670) by Sir Peter Lely, c. 1662 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Henriette Anne [formerly Henrietta], Princess, duchess of Orléans (1644–1670), was born at Bedford House, Exeter, on 16 June 1644, the sixth and youngest of the children of Charles I (1600–1649) and Queen Henrietta Maria (1609–1669) to survive infancy and the eighth in all. By her father's command she was baptized into the ...

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Henry Benedict (1725–1807) by Louis-Gabriel Blanchet, 1748 private collection

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Henry Benedict [Henry Benedict Stuart; styled Henry; known as Cardinal York] (1725–1807), cardinal and Jacobite claimant to the English, Scottish, and Irish thrones, was born Henry Benedict Thomas Edward Maria Clement Francis Xavier in the Palazzo Muti in Rome on 6 March 1725, and baptized there some hours later by ...

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James Francis Edward (1688–1766) by Louis-Gabriel Blanchet, 1741 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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James Francis Edward [James Francis Edward Stuart; styled James; known as Chevalier de St George, the Pretender, the Old Pretender] (1688–1766), Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born at St James's Palace, Westminster, on 10 June 1688, the only surviving son of ...