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Balme, Matthew (1813–1884), factory reformer, was born in Tong, Yorkshire, on 8 July 1813, the third son of Francis Balme (1742–1819), a yeoman farmer, and his wife, Elizabeth West (d. 1846), of Redhill Farm, Dudley Hill, Bradford. He was baptized at St James's Church, Tong...

Article

Clark, Frederick Le Gros (1892–1977), social and industrial reformer, was born on 3 September 1892 in Chislet, Kent, the eldest in the family of three sons and one daughter of the Revd (Edward) Travers Clark, of Washfield, Tiverton, Devon, and his wife, Ethel May...

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Hyde, Sir Robert Robertson (1878–1967), industrial welfare promoter, was born on 7 September 1878 in London, the second son among the five children of Robert Mettam Hyde, of Paisley, and his wife, Marjorie Stoddart Robertson, of Inveraray. His father was a constructional civil engineer who had been responsible for laying the first submarine cables in ...

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Lewis, John Spedan (1885–1963), department store owner and industrial reformer, was born in Marylebone, London, on 22 September 1885, the elder son of John Lewis (1836–1928), a Somerset draper who from 1864 built up a successful retail business in Oxford Street, and his wife, ...

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Oastler, Richard (1789–1861), factory reformer, was born on 20 December 1789 in St Peter's Square, Leeds, the eighth and last child of Robert Oastler (1748–1820), a local linen merchant, and his wife, Sarah Scurr (d. 1828). Of his mother's family little is known save that they were devout and respected middle-class folk who had been established in ...

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Richard Oastler (1789–1861) by James Posselwhite (after B. Garside) © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Wood, John (1793–1871), worsted manufacturer and factory reformer, was the eldest child of John Wood (d. 1832), who, by 1800, was Bradford's leading manufacturer of such goods as combs and snuff-boxes in horn, ivory, and tortoiseshell at Roebuck Yard, Ivegate. At the age of fifteen he was apprenticed to ...