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Elizabeth Christiana Cavendish, duchess of Devonshire (1757–1824) by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1787 Chatsworth House. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Cavendish [née Hervey; other married name Foster], Elizabeth Christiana, duchess of Devonshire (1757–1824), society hostess and patron of the arts, was the middle daughter of Frederick Augustus Hervey, fourth earl of Bristol (1730–1803), and his wife, Elizabeth Davers (1730–1800), and was known for most her life as ...

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Fitzwilliam, Richard, seventh Viscount Fitzwilliam of Merrion (1745–1816), collector, connoisseur, and museum founder, was born on 1 August 1745 in Richmond, Surrey, the son of Richard Fitzwilliam, sixth Viscount Fitzwilliam (d. 1776), and his wife Catherine Decker (c.1710–1786), eldest daughter of the Dutch-born merchant and political economist, ...

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Hope, Henry Thomas (1808–1862), patron of the arts and politician, was born in London, probably in Duchess Street, on 30 April 1808, eldest of the three sons of Thomas Hope (1769–1831), of the Amsterdam banking family, and his wife, Louisa (d. 1851)...

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Lucy Russell, countess of Bedford (bap. 1581, d. 1627) attrib. William Larkin, c. 1615 National Museum of Fine Arts, Sweden

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Russell [née Harington], Lucy, countess of Bedford (bap. 1581, d. 1627), courtier and patron of the arts, was baptized on 25 January 1581 at St Dunstan and All Saints, Stepney, Middlesex, the elder daughter of John Harington, first Baron Harington of Exton...

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Slade, Felix (1788–1868), art collector and benefactor, was born on 6 August 1788 at Lambeth (and baptized Felix Joseph at St Mary's, Lambeth, on 30 August 1788), the fourth and youngest son of Robert Slade (d. 1835), proctor in Doctors' Commons and deputy lieutenant for ...

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James Lewis Smithson (1764–1829) by Henri-Joseph Johns, 1816 National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution

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Smithson [formerly Macie], James Lewis (1764–1829), mineralogist and benefactor, was born Jacques Louis Macie in Paris in early 1764, the illegitimate son of a long-term liaison between Hugh Percy (formerly Smithson), second earl and later first duke of Northumberland (bap. 1712, d. 1786)...