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Anstis, John (1708–1754), herald, was born on 17 November 1708 in St Clement Danes, Westminster, the seventh of fourteen children and eldest surviving son of John Anstis the elder (1669–1744), Garter king of arms, and his wife, Elizabeth (c.1675–c.1735)...

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Archibald Armstrong (d. 1672) by Thomas Cecill, pubd 1630 © Copyright The British Museum

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Armstrong, Archibald [Archy] (d. 1672), court fool, was born of Scottish parents, perhaps at Arthuret in Cumberland or Langholm, Roxburghshire; his father was also named Archibald Armstrong. Young Archy's early life and the means by which he first entered the service of King James VI and I...

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Belmaine, Jean (fl. 1546–1559), royal tutor, is of uncertain origins. He probably came to England from France in the wake of the French persecutions of religious evangelicals after the edict of Fontainebleau (1540). He certainly had Calvinist sympathies: his corrections to Edward VI's...

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Blount, Thomas (1605/6–1678), landowner and local politician, was the second son of the six sons and two daughters born to Edward Blount (1559–1618), lawyer and landowner, and his second wife, Fortune, daughter of the London merchant Sir William Garway (Garraway). The Blount family held the manor and ...

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Boyd, Robert, fifth Lord Boyd (c. 1517–1590), nobleman, was the eldest son of Robert, fourth Lord Boyd (d. 1558), and Helen, daughter of Sir John Somerville of Cambusnethan. In 1535 he married Margaret (d. 1601), daughter of Sir John Colquhoun of ...

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Brooke [Brookesmouth], Ralph (c. 1553–1625), herald, was born in London, the son of Geoffrey Brooke, a shoemaker, and his wife, Jane Hyde. By his own account, preserved in the College of Arms, his grandfather was William Brooke of Lancashire; however, Anthony Wagner cites another contemporary account that gives the family name as ...

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Bruce, Sir George (c. 1550–1625), mining industrialist and landowner, was probably born about 1550, the youngest of the three sons of Sir Edward Bruce (1505–1565) of Blairhall near Culross, in Perthshire, and Alison Reid of Aitkenhead, a sister of the bishop of Orkney...

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Campbell, Archibald, fourth earl of Argyll (1498–1558), magnate, was the eldest son of Colin Campbell, third earl of Argyll (d. 1529), and Lady Janet Gordon, daughter of the third earl of Huntly. He was known as Archibald Roy Oig because he was redheaded and to distinguish him from the older ...

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Campbell, Colin, sixth earl of Argyll (c. 1542–1584), magnate, was the second son of Archibald Campbell, fourth earl of Argyll (1498–1558), and his second wife, Lady Margaret Graham (d. in or before 1545), daughter of the third earl of Menteith. Following Gaelic tradition he was probably fostered with his maternal kin, thereby acquiring the name ...

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Elizabeth Campbell, duchess of Argyll and suo jure Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon (bap. 1733, d. 1790) by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1758–9 Board of Trustees of the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside (Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight)

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Campbell [née Gunning], Elizabeth, duchess of Argyll and suo jure Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon [other married name Elizabeth Hamilton, duchess of Hamilton and Brandon] (bap. 1733, d. 1790), courtier, was probably born at Hemingford Grey, Huntingdonshire, and was probably baptized there on 7 December 1733, the second of five daughters of ...

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Cawarden, Sir Thomas (c. 1514–1559), courtier, was the son of William Cawarden, shearman and fuller of London, and his wife, Elizabeth. Apprenticed in 1528 to Owen Hawkins, mercer of London (a date which suggests he was born c.1514), he later became free of the ...

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Clarke, Edward (d. 1630), courtier and diplomat, appears in the state papers as Ned; his family origins and details of his early life are unknown. His career at court appears to have begun in the post of groom in the bedchamber of James VI and I...

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Claypole [Cleypole, Claypoole], John, appointed Lord Cleypole under the protectorate (1625–1688), army officer and courtier, was born on 21 August 1625, the eldest son of John Claypole of Northborough, Northamptonshire, and his wife, Mary Angell. James Claypoole was his younger brother. John Claypole senior...

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Conroy, Sir John Ponsonby, first baronet (1786–1854), courtier, was born on 21 October 1786 at Maes-y-castell, Caerhun, Caernarvonshire, the eldest of the five sons and one daughter of John Ponsonby Conroy (1759–1797), barrister, and his wife, Margaret, daughter of Francis Vernon Wilson, who were both Irish-born. Educated by tutors and at the ...

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Craufurd, Patrick [Peter], of Auchenames (c. 1704–1778), politician and landowner, was the first surviving son of Patrick Craufurd (d. 1733), a wealthy Edinburgh merchant, and his second wife, Jean (d. 1740), daughter of Archibald Craufurd of Auchenames and Crosbie. The younger ...

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T. F. Henderson

revised by Alexander Du Toit

Crawfurd, George (b. in or before 1695, d. 1748), genealogist and historian, was the third son of Thomas Crawfurd (b. in or before 1669, d. 1695), landowner of Cartsburn, Renfrewshire. In June 1716 he married Margaret (d. in or after 1748)...