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Duncan, John (1794–1881), hand-loom weaver and botanist, was born on 19 December 1794 at Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, the illegitimate son of John Duncan, weaver and soldier, from Drumlithie, and Ann Caird (c.1773–c.1830), also of Drumlithie, who decided to support herself and her child by weaving stockings and harvesting at nearby ...

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John Duncan (1794–1881) by unknown engraver, c. 1865–6 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Edward, Thomas (1814–1886), naturalist and shoemaker, was born on 25 December 1814 at Gosport, Hampshire, one of several children of John Edward, Fife militiaman and weaver, and Margaret Mitchell of Aberdeen. His early years were spent at Kettle, Fife, and at Aberdeen. From childhood he was passionately fond of animals, bringing home so many ‘beasties’ that he was frequently flogged and confined to the house. Utterly unmanageable, by the age of six he had been expelled from three schools because of his zoological pursuits and truancy. Abandoning school, he found employment at ...

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Thomas Edward (1814–1886) by Sir George Reid Scottish National Portrait Gallery

Article

R. E. Anderson

revised by I. Grattan-Guinness

Ivory, James (1765–1842), mathematician and mill manager, born in Dundee, on 17 February 1765, was the eldest son of James Ivory, watchmaker. At the age of fourteen he matriculated at St Andrews University, and after six years' study with a view to becoming a minister of the Scottish church, he went to ...

Article

Morton, Sir James (1867–1943), textile and dyestuffs manufacturer, was born on 24 March 1867, at Darvel, Ayrshire, the third of nine children in the family of Alexander Morton (1844–1923) and his wife, Jean, née Wiseman (1844/5–1924). Alexander (1844–1923), of hand-loom weaving stock, was the leading entrepreneur in the factory production of lace, mainly for curtains. He had also pioneered direct selling to retailers and diversified into heavier decorative materials, including machine-made carpets. ...

Article

Smith, James, of Deanston (1789–1850), textile industrialist and agricultural engineer, was born in Glasgow on 3 January 1789, the son of a Glasgow merchant of a Galloway family, who died two months after his birth. He was brought up by his maternal uncle, ...