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Sir Edwin Chadwick (1800–1890) by unknown engraver, pubd 1889 (after Mayall & Co.) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Chadwick, Sir Edwin (1800–1890), social reformer and civil servant, was born at Longsight, near Manchester, on 24 January 1800. Surprisingly little is known of his early life, and of his mother nothing, except that she died in the infancy of her only son. His father, ...

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Hastings, George Woodyatt (1825–1917), social reformer and politician, was born on 28 September 1825 at 43 Foregate Street, Worcester, the second of three children, and the only son, of Sir Charles Hastings (1794–1866), physician and founder of the British Medical Association (BMA), and his wife, ...

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Maker: Sir William Rothenstein

Henry Woodd Nevinson (1856–1941) by Sir William Rothenstein, 1924 © Estate of Sir William Rothenstein / National Portrait Gallery, London

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H. N. Brailsford

revised by Sinéad Agnew

Nevinson, Henry Woodd (1856–1941), social activist and journalist, was born at 5 South Fields Place, Leicester, on 11 October 1856, the second son of George Nevinson, a solicitor, and his wife, Maria Jane, née Woodd, who raised him in a strictly evangelical atmosphere. In 1872 he won a scholarship at ...

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Ricketts, John William (1791–1835), social activist, the fourth and youngest child of Lieutenant John Henry Ricketts (1767–1792) and his Indian companion, Bibi Zeenut Ricketts (c.1770–1824), was born in October 1791. His father, the eldest son of an English surgeon, served as an engineer officer in the ...

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Michael Thomas Sadler (1780–1835) by William Robinson, in or before 1830 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sadler, Michael Thomas (1780–1835), social reformer and political economist, was born on 3 January 1780 at the Old Hall, Doveridge, Snelston, Derbyshire. He was the youngest of the six children of James Sadler (d. 1800?), a gentleman farmer at Doveridge who claimed descent from ...

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Solanke, Oladipo Felix [known as Ladipo Solanke] (c. 1886–1958), student activist, was born in the Yoruba town of Abeokuta, Nigeria. He was the second child and only son of Adeyola Ejiwunmi and her husband, who had adopted the name of Paley from the Scottish missionary who had raised him. He was educated at ...

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Arnold Toynbee (1852–1883) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Toynbee, Arnold (1852–1883), social reformer and political economist, was born at 18 Savile Row, London, on 23 August 1852, the second son of Joseph Toynbee (1815–1866), an eminent aural surgeon, and his wife, Harriet Holmes. Toynbee owed much in his early years to the influence of his father, who, though he died when his son was only fourteen, had already inspired him with a love of literature and with the foundations of those social ideals which were afterwards the main interest of his life. ...

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Eve [née Turing], (Fanny) Jean Trustram (1862–1934), Conservative party activist and social reformer, was born at 6 Trumpington Street, Cambridge, on 6 July 1862, the eldest child of the five daughters and five sons of the Revd John Robert Turing...