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Adam, William (1751–1839), politician and advocate, was born on 2 August 1751, the son of John Adam (1721–1792), architect, of Blair Adam, Kinross-shire, and Jean (1721–1795), daughter of John Ramsay of Woodstone, Kincardineshire; he was the nephew of the architects Robert and James Adam...

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William Adam (1751–1839) by Sir Henry Raeburn photograph by courtesy Sotheby's Picture Library, London

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Alexander, James (1691–1756), lawyer and politician, was born on 27 May 1691 at Muthill, Perthshire, Scotland, the son of David Alexander. His mother's name is unknown. His grandfather was a descendant of the first earl of Stirling, but his father had no claim to be counted among the nobility. ...

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Alford, Francis (c. 1530–1592), civil lawyer and member of parliament, was the second son of Robert Alford (d. 1546) and his wife, Anne Brydges. He gained a BA degree at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1549 and was admitted to Christ Church, Oxford...

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Allen, Francis (c. 1583–1658), politician and regicide, was probably born in London, though nothing is as yet known of his early life or parentage. He first appears in the mid-1630s as a liveryman of the Goldsmiths' Company living on Fleet Street. He was one of those goldsmiths living in 'remote' places who opposed attempts to force them back into the ...

Article

Sidney Lee

revised by K. D. Reynolds

Anstey, Thomas Chisholm (1816–1873), lawyer and politician, was the second son of Thomas Anstey (1777–1851), one of the earliest settlers in Van Diemen's Land, and his wife, Mary Turnbull (d. 1862), and was born in Kentish Town, London. He received his early education in ...

Article

Anstruther, Sir John, fourth baronet and first baronet (1753–1811), politician and judge, was born on 27 March 1753 at Elie House, Elie, Fife, the second son of Sir John Anstruther, second baronet (1718–1799), politician, and his wife, Janet Fall (1727–1802), daughter of James Fall...

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Archer, Peter Kingsley, Baron Archer of Sandwell (1926–2012), barrister and politician, was born on 20 November 1926 in Great Western Street, Wednesbury, Staffordshire, the only child of Cyril Kingsley Archer (1897–1974), tool setter, and his wife, May, née Baker (1896–1976). His parents encouraged him to spend time in the library, instilling a lifelong love of books. He also became committed to Methodism and was later a lifelong Methodist lay preacher. At the age of sixteen he completed his schooling at ...

Article

G. W. T. Omond

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Asher, Alexander (1834–1905), lawyer and politician, was born at Inveravon, Banffshire, on 27 January 1834, the third son and fifth child in the family of five sons and four daughters of William Asher DD (1791–1874), parish minister of Inveravon, and his wife, Katherine Forbes (...

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Thompson Cooper

revised by H. J. Spencer

Atherton, Sir William (1806–1864), lawyer and politician, was born at Glasgow in October 1806, the son of the Revd William Atherton (1775–1850), a Wesleyan minister, and Margaret, daughter of Walter Morison, a minister of the established Church of Scotland. He was educated in ...

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Atkyns, Sir Edward (1630/31–1698), judge and politician, was born at Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, the second son of Sir Edward Atkyns (1587–1669) of Hensington, Oxfordshire, and Albury Hall, Hertfordshire, baron of the exchequer and justice of the common pleas, and his first wife, Ursula (...

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Atkyns, Sir Robert (bap. 1621, d. 1710), judge and politician, was born at Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, and baptized there on 29 April 1621, the eldest son of Sir Edward Atkyns (1587–1669), a baron of the exchequer during the interregnum, and the elder brother of ...

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Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator, was born on 6 March 1663 at Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, the younger son of Lewis Atterbury (1630/31–1693) [see under Atterbury, Lewis (1656-1731)], then rector of Milton Keynes, and his wife, Elizabeth, ...

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Francis Atterbury (1663–1732) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1718 Christ Church, Oxford

Article

See Bacon, Sir Nathaniel

Article

Baillie, Charles, Lord Jerviswoode (1804–1879), lawyer and politician, was born at Mellerstain, Berwickshire, on 3 November 1804, the second son of George Baillie of Mellerstain, Berwickshire, and of Jerviswoode, Lanarkshire, and his wife, Mary, the youngest daughter of Sir James Pringle, baronet, of ...

Article

Balfour, Sir James, of Pittendreich (c. 1525–1583), politician and legal writer, was the eldest son of Sir Michael Balfour (d. 1577) of Mountquhanie in Fife, and Joneta Boswell. He may have been educated at St Andrews in 1539 or 1540, when he would have been about fifteen years old, and was at ...

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Balfour, John Blair, first Baron Kinross (1837–1905), advocate and politician, born at Clackmannan on 11 July 1837, was the second son (in a family of two sons and a daughter) of Peter Balfour (1794–1862), parish minister of that place, and his wife, Jane Ramsay (...

Article

P. B. Austin

revised by Sinéad Agnew

Ball, Nicholas (1791–1865), judge and politician, was born in Dublin, the son of John Ball (1728–1804), silk mercer of Dublin, and his wife, Mabel Clare, née Bennett. Ball, a Catholic, was educated at Stonyhurst College, Lancashire, and at Trinity College, Dublin (1808–12), where his contemporaries included ...

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G. V. Benson

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Bankes, George (1787–1856), politician and lawyer, was born on 1 December 1787, the third son of Henry Bankes (1757–1834) of Kingston Lacy, Dorset, who represented Corfe Castle for nearly fifty years, and of Frances (1760/61–1823), daughter of William Woodley, governor of the Leeward Islands...