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Arderne, John (b. 1307/8, d. in or after 1377), surgeon and author, was the most important English person in his field before the seventeenth century. He made considerable claims for the originality of his surgical technique, although allowance must be made for his gift for self-publicity. What is learned from his works is enough to show not only that he was a highly paid and respected surgeon, but also that his writing is unique in its insights into the practical realities of medieval surgery. Unlike other surgical authors he reveals not only the surgery that was taught and transmitted in writing, but also what was actually done face-to-face with the patient. Unfortunately there are no records or other independent testimony revealing his life and career; what is known about him is known through his writings....

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Argentine, John (c. 1443–1508), physician and college head, was the most eminent of the first generation of Italian-trained doctors to return to a medical and academic career in England. He was born at Bottisham in Cambridgeshire, into a well-connected family; he entered Eton College...

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Arundell, John (c. 1400–1477), physician and bishop of Chichester, was a Cornishman, almost certainly of the Lanherne branch of the family, whose arms he bore. The likelihood is that he was the son of Sir John Arundell (d. 1433), landowner, and his wife, ...

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Bald (fl. c. 900), supposed physician and medical writer, was the owner and probable author of a work titled Læceboc (leechbook), a compilation in Old English of medical recipes and treatments. All that is known of Bald is to be found in the Latin verse colophon to the ...

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James Barry (c. 1799–1865) by unknown photographer, c. 1860 [left, with a servant] Trustees of the Army Medical Services Museum

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Barry, James (c. 1799–1865), army medical officer and transvestite, was probably born Margaret, the youngest daughter of Mrs Mary Ann Bulkley or Bulkeley, the sister of the artist James Barry; her paternity is in doubt. From the age of ten she dressed and presented herself as a man, but the woman who laid out her corpse declared that she was female: '...

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Barton, John (fl. 1417), physician and alleged heretic, was the subject of a testimonial issued at Reading on 11 May 1417 by Archbishop Chichele, stating that John Barton, described as a doctor of the city of London, had purged himself in a provincial council held at ...

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[Anon.]

revised by Patrick Wallis

Blysse, John (d. 1530), physician, was born in the diocese of Bath and Wells. He graduated BA at Oxford in June 1507 and was elected a probationary fellow of Merton College in 1509, having the character of 'an excellent disputant in philosophy...

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Bradmore, John (d. 1412), surgeon, was resident in London from at least 1377 until his death. He married twice; his first wife, Margaret, with whom he had a daughter, Agnes, died some time after May 1410, and he married again without delay. His son, ...

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Bray, John (d. 1381?), physician and botanist, is first recorded in September 1372, when John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (d. 1399), granted him £10 yearly from Kingston Manor, Dorset, for his services, with a living befitting a chamberlain, two horses and a servant, and ...

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Bredon, Simon (d. 1372), physician and astronomer, came from Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, and by 1330 was a fellow of Merton College, Oxford, where he remained probably until 1348. In 1333 he visited the papal court at Avignon in the course of university administration. Academically he was notable in undertaking higher studies in both theology and medicine, and drew on both subjects in his later career. From 1348 he held a variety of ecclesiastical preferments. By 1355 he was in the service of ...

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Caerleon, Lewis (d. in or after 1495), physician and astronomer, was a native of Wales. He is first recorded in 1465–6, when he was admitted bachelor of medicine of Cambridge University. The university fined him 20s. in 1466 for not fulfilling his commitment to lecture in medicine. According to a seventeenth-century biography of ...

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See Women medical practitioners in England

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See Women medical practitioners in England

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Cokkys, John (d. 1475), medical practitioner, is one of the few men whose name can be linked to the teaching and practice of medicine at Oxford in the fifteenth century. It is all the more frustrating that so few facts about his life can be established with any certainty. ...

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Linda Ehrsam Voigts

Colnet, Nicholas (d. 1420), physician, was of obscure origins, and all that is known of his early career is that his first studies at Oxford were provided, as to a scholar of the founder's kin, by Merton College from 1391. He became fellow of ...

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Crophill, John (d. in or after 1485), medical practitioner, is one of the few rural doctors of the middle ages whose intellectual interests and practical concerns can be traced in any detail. He compiled and owned what is now BL, Harley MS 1735, a volume written on parchment and paper, which contains several pieces in his handwriting, as well as others written by a professional scribe and afterwards annotated by ...

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Denman, Thomas (d. 1500/01), physician, was of obscure origins. Although his brother, William, became a monk of Lenton Abbey, Nottinghamshire, references in Thomas's will of 1500 to property in Easton, and bequests to religious houses in the nearby town of Stamford, might suggest that he came from ...

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English, William (fl. 1219–1231), physician and astronomer, is known only through references in his own works or in the manuscripts in which those works are found. He says of himself that he was born in England and settled at Marseilles, and describes himself as a practising physician, learned in astronomy. There is a question as to whether he knew Arabic. Among the works doubtfully attributed to him is the translation, from Arabic, of a short treatise in the tradition of ...

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Evesham, Hugh of (d. 1287), physician and cardinal, was born, and possibly educated, at Evesham, before first making his name at Oxford University, where he distinguished himself as a peacemaker in various university disputes between 1267 and 1274. However, he sided with the Dominicans against the Franciscans in their battle over evangelical poverty in 1269. In 1275 he was granted licence, as archdeacon of ...