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Chardin, Sir John [Jean] (1643–1712), traveller and merchant, was born in Paris on 16 November 1643 and baptized on 24 November at the protestant temple at Charenton, near Paris, the eldest son of Daniel Chardin, a merchant-jeweller in the place Dauphiné in Paris...

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Courten, Sir William (c. 1568–1636), merchant and financier, was born in London, the son of William Courten, a merchant, and his wife, Margaret Casiere. His parents were religious refugees who fled from Leye in Flanders during 1568. His father set up a textile business in ...

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Grueber, Francis (1658?–1730), gunpowder and leather manufacturer and merchant, was born in Lyons, France, probably in December 1658, the eldest of the three sons and three daughters of Daniel Grueber (d. 1692) and his wife, Susanne (née Monginot). The Huguenot family arrived in ...

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Hoste, Dirick (c. 1588–1663), merchant and financier, was born in Middelburg, Netherlands, the son of Jacques Hoste (b. 1545), a merchant, and his wife, Barbara Henricksen. His father and grandfather had fled Oudenarde in Flanders for religious reasons in the wake of the ‘Wonderyear’ of 1566—the failed protestant insurrection in the ...

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See Houblon, Sir John

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Sir John Houblon (1632–1712) by R. Williams (after John Closterman, 1695–6) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Houblon, Sir John (1632–1712), merchant, was born on 13 March 1632, the third son in the family of ten sons and three daughters of James Houblon (1592–1682), merchant, and his wife Marie du Quesne (or Ducane). He became more eminent than any of his nine brothers, four of whom were also prosperous merchants and two of whom served on the directorate of the ...

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Maker: William Faithorne the elder

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John La Motte (1577–1655) by William Faithorne the elder, pubd 1656 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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La Motte, John (1577–1655), merchant, was born in Colchester on 1 May 1577, the son of Francis La Motte, a weaver and cloth merchant who had fled to the town in 1564 from Ypres in Flanders. Presumably he was apprenticed in his father's craft. By the second decade of the seventeenth century, during which he moved to ...

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Laet, Johannes De [Johannes Latius] (1581–1649), merchant and scholar, was born in Antwerp in the autumn of 1581, the son of Johannes De Laet (d. c.1605), merchant; his mother's name is unknown. After the fall of Antwerp in 1585, the family, like thousands of Flemish protestants, fled to the ...

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Leisler, Jacob (bap. 1640, d. 1691), merchant and rebel leader in America, was baptized on 31 March 1640 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the first of eight children of the Revd Jacob Victorian Leisler (1606–1653), and his wife, Susanne Adelheid, née Wissenbach (1612–1694)...

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Lulls, Arnold [formerly Arnout] (fl. 1584–1642), merchant and jeweller, was born in Antwerp, Spanish Netherlands. Members of the Lulls family had lived in England since the 1550s, but Arnold himself arrived some time between 1580 and 1584, when he became a member of the Dutch church, ...

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Malynes [Malines, de Malines], Gerard [Garrett, Gerald] (fl. 1585–1641), merchant and writer on economics, was the son of a 'mint-master' (Malynes, 281). He claimed that Lancashire was the 'countrey' of his 'ancestors and parents', but he was actually born in ...

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Neck, Sir Joshua van, first baronet (1702–1777), merchant and financier, was born in The Hague on 5 January 1702, one of the six sons of Cornelis van Neck, paymaster-general of the land forces of the United Provinces, and his wife, Anna de Greeff...

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Papillon, Thomas (1623–1702), merchant and politician, was born on 6 September 1623, the fifth son of David Papillon (1581–1659) of Roehampton, Surrey, and Lubenham, Leicestershire, and his second wife, Anna-Maria (1591–1675), daughter of Jean Calandrini of Sedan, France, and Putney, Surrey. Papillon boasted a tempestuous Huguenot ancestry, his great-grandfather having fallen victim to the St Bartholomew's day massacre of 1572. Brought to ...

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E. I. Carlyle

revised by François Crouzet

Thellusson, Peter (1737–1797), merchant, was born in Paris on 27 June 1737, the third son of Isaac de Thellusson (1690–1755), banker in Paris and minister of Geneva at the court of France (1730–44), and his wife, Sarah, daughter of Abraham Le Boullenger, of ...

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Vanlore, Sir Peter [formerly Pieter van Loor] (c. 1547–1627), merchant and moneylender, was born in Utrecht in the Netherlands, the third son of Maurice van Loor and his wife, Stephania. He arrived in England about 1568. By 1571 he was lodging with one ...