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Bell, Thomas (fl. 1783–1784), inventor of cylinder printing in the textile industry, was probably born in Scotland. He became a copperplate-engraver and printer, and by the 1780s he was living at Mosney, then at Walton-le-Dale, near Preston, an important region of calico printing. His move to ...

Article

Crompton, Samuel (1753–1827), inventor of the spinning mule, was born at Firwood Fold, Tonge, near Bolton, Lancashire, on 3 December 1753, the eldest son of George Crompton (1726–1758) and Elizabeth Holt (1725–1799) of nearby Turton. Firwood Farm had been held by Cromptons since Tudor times; ...

Image

Samuel Crompton (1753–1827) by Samuel William Reynolds senior, pubd 1828 (after Charles Allingham) © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Hargreaves, James (bap. 1721, d. 1778), inventor of the spinning jenny, was born in Oswaldtwistle, Lancashire, and baptized at Church Kirk on 8 January 1721. His exact birthplace is unknown, and apart from the fact that he became a hand-loom weaver, little has been discovered of his early life. His parents had one other child, ...

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John Kay (1704–178081) by unknown engraver Science & Society Picture Library

Article

Kay, John (1704–1780/81), inventor of textile manufacturing machinery, was born at Park Farm in the township of Walmersley in the parish of Bury, Lancashire, on 16 July 1704, the fifth son of Robert Kay (1651–1704) and his wife, Ellen, née Entwistle, of Quarlton...

Article

See Kay, John

Article

Lister, Samuel Cunliffe-, first Baron Masham (1815–1906), inventor of textile machinery, born at Calverly Hall, near Bradford, on 1 January 1815, was the fourth son in the large family of Ellis Cunliffe Lister-Kay (d. 1854) of Manningham and Farfield, and his second wife, ...

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Samuel Cunliffe Lister, first Baron Masham (1815–1906) by Frank Holl, 1882 private collection. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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George Stronach

revised by David J. Jeremy

Orr, Hugh (1715–1798), toolmaker and textile manufacturer in America, was born probably on 2 January 1715 (other sources give 13 January 1717) at Lochwinnoch, Renfrewshire, the son of Robert Orr. Trained as a gunsmith and door-lock filer he emigrated to America in 1740, in his twenties, and settled at ...