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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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Ferdinand, Philip (1556–1599), Hebrew and Arabic scholar, was born of Jewish parentage in Poland in 1556. In his youth he studied the Talmud in the traditional Jewish manner and, judging from his elegant Latin, his command of Greek, and his fine handwriting, also received a humanist education. After about 1580 he was in ...

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Harari [née Benenson], Manya (1905–1969), publisher and translator, was born at Baku, Russia, on 8 April 1905, the fourth child and youngest daughter of Grigory Benenson, a Jewish financier, and his wife, Sophie Goldberg. While Benenson amassed an enormous fortune Manya's childhood was spent amid the opulence of a rented top floor of ...

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Raphael, Marco (fl. 1529–1534), Hebraist, was a Jewish convert to Christianity from Venice, where he was rewarded by the council of ten for inventing an improved brand of invisible ink. In 1529 he was recruited to the cause of Henry VIII's divorce by another Venetian, ...

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Tremellius, (Joannes) Immanuel (1510–1580), Hebrew and biblical scholar, was born in Ferrara, Italy, in 1510. His parents were Jews, and he had at least one brother. In Ferrara he received a traditional Jewish education as well as a humanist training in Latin and Greek, and, when he was twenty, proceeded to the ...