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F. T. Marzials

revised by Geoffrey Treasure

Durand, David (1680–1763), Reformed minister and historian, was born at Sommières in Languedoc and studied for the ministry at Basel. Thence he went to the Netherlands, and accompanied a corps of French refugees to Spain. Taken prisoner at the battle of Almanza in 1707, he would have been burnt alive by some peasants but for the intervention of the ...


Halévy, Élie (1870–1937), historian and philosopher, was born on 6 September 1870 at Étretat, Normandy, in France. He was the elder son of Ludovic Halévy (1834–1908), writer and librettist, and his wife, Louise, née Bréguet (1847–1930), heir to the industrialist and scientist Louis Bréguet...


Paul de Rapin de Thoyras (1661–1725) by Jacob Houbraken, 1725 (after Jan Henrik Brandon) © National Portrait Gallery, London


Rapin de Thoyras [Rapin], Paul de (1661–1725), army officer and historian, was born in Castres, France, on 25 March 1661, the third of the six children of Jacques Rapin, sieur de Thoyras (1613–1685), an advocate, and Jeanne Pélisson (d. 1706). He came from a protestant Savoyard family who had emigrated to ...